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Flashcards in Ch 4 Religion & Religious Decisions Deck (55)
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1
Q

What was the ‘Reformation’?

A
  • the 16th century movement to reform the Catholic Church
  • the break w/ Catholic Church - was begun by Henry VIII in 1530s; removed Pope’s authority from England
  • Henry VIII became monarch of newly created Church of England
2
Q

What was the religious state of England in 17th century?

A

-England had moved from Catholic country to predominantly PROTESTANT one!

3
Q

What did Protestantism develop from?

A

-Calvinism

4
Q

What was the period of English history called during the reign of James I?

A

-Jacobean

5
Q

What was the period of English history called during the reign of Charles I?

A

-Caroline

6
Q

What was Calvinism?

A
  • branch of Christianity
  • named after John Calvin (influential figure of Protestant Reformation)
  • belief in predestination
  • dominant branch of Protestantism within Church of England (CoE)
7
Q

Define Predestination:

A

-belief that an individual’s salvation was already decided by God & NOT dependent on how that person lived

8
Q

What was Puritanism?

A
  • the hotter type of Protestantism; more radical

- sought further reform to CoE to remove any remnants of Catholicism remaining after Reformation

9
Q

What was Arminianism?

A
  • known as ‘anti-calvinism’
  • denomination of Protestantism
  • members did NOT want further reformation of CoE
  • Arminianism was seen as closest to CATHOLICISM; due to emphasis on ceremony
10
Q

Define ‘Salvation’:

A

-being saved from punishment of sins in the afterlife & the saving of the soul from sins

11
Q

What was Protestant general hostility to Catholicism a result of?

A
  • the Reformation
  • the burning of Protestants when England briefly returned to Catholicism under Catholic Queen ‘Bloody’ Mary I
  • the Spanish war against Catholic Spain during Elizabeth’s reign (Spanish Armada 1588)
  • the Gunpowder Plot 1605
  • the ‘Thirty Years War’ (1618-48)
  • all created anti-Catholicism
12
Q

How did James I react to Catholics?

A
  • Catholics were generally politically passive
  • James was prepared to make distinction between Catholics who were ‘quiet’ & those who were ‘factious’; although this ran against popular feelings of anti-Catholicism
  • James was pragmatic - wanting to avoid forcing moderate Catholics to challenge him directly
  • happy to present a more anti-Catholic image when it made political sense to do so; fluctuated between toleration & severe treatments of Catholics during first 10yrs of his reign
13
Q

What were James I’s own religious beliefs?

A
  • uneager to publicise his own religious beliefs; didn’t want to stir tensions
  • he did much to establish Pope as Antichrist in 2 of his works
14
Q

What was the Fervent Protestant view of the Pope?

A
  • fervent Protestants v anti-Catholic

- pope = the Antichrist (figure in Christian belief who is personal opponent of Jesus Christ)

15
Q

What factor made Henry VIII establish the CoE & Protestantism in England?

A
  • marriage to Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon
  • wanted a divorce but Church wouldn’t let him
  • therefore broke away to make his own CoE that would permit his divorce
16
Q

How many Protestants were burned @ the Stake in Mary I’s reign? What influence did this have w/ John Foxe’s ‘Book of Martyrs’ (1563)?

A
  • around 300 Protestants (reasons for why they wanted revenge on Catholics in James/Charles I’s reigns)
  • John Foxe’s ‘Book of Martyrs’ = account of Mary’s burning of Protestants became 2nd most read book in England after the Bible; resulted in anti-Catholicism becoming part of English identity
17
Q

What happened in the ‘Thirty Years War’ (1618-48)?

A
  • religious war of Catholics Vs Protestants in Europe
  • 1st major defeat for Protestants in 1620 @ Battle of the White Mountain
  • raised concerns over Catholic denomination in Europe & the eradication of Protestantism; concern recurred often
18
Q

What did James I order against Catholics in May 1603?

A
  • ordered the collection of recusancy fines (fines imposed on recusants - anyone who did not attend compulsory CoE service on Sundays)
  • obvs those more committed to Catholic or Puritan beliefs were more likely to not attend
19
Q

What did James I order against Catholics in 1604?

A

-James & Parliament encouraged legislation against Jesuits (Catholic order of religious men that fought to convert Protestant countries to Catholicism under Pope)

20
Q

What did James introduce in 1606 as result of 1605 Gunpowder Plot?

A

-introduced 1606 Oath of Allegiance in order to force Catholic recusants to declare their allegiance to him & not the Pope

21
Q

What laws did Parliament pass against Catholics in 1606? How did James enforce them (or lack of it)?

A
  • 2 severe laws
  • James didn’t rigorously enforce them
  • his lack of administrative drive coincided w/ his personal inclination towards tolerance & desire to not upset Catholic Spain after securing peace in 1604
22
Q

What year did England declare peace w/ Catholic Spain?

A

-1604

23
Q

What was the Gunpowder Plot (1605)?

A

-supposedly attempt by some radical Catholics to blow up James I & both Houses of Parliament (would have removed key elements of Political Nation as precursor to Catholic uprising)

24
Q

However, what may the Gunpowder Plot (1605) actually have been?

A

-government conspiracy to turn people against Catholicism

25
Q

What was the aftermath of the Gunpowder Plot?

A
  • Catholics became even more passive than they had been

- Catholicism therefore not such a threat to James & he did not need to repeat such harsh lines as in early years

26
Q

What was the Millenary Petition (1603)?

A
  • group of moderate Puritans presented it to James I while he was travelling to London to claim the English throne
  • was list of requests calling for modifications in church services (e.g. abolition of the sign of the cross), the freedom of ministers not to wear ceremonial robes, education requirements for ministers & reform of ecclesiastical courts
  • James was firm believer of predestination & was therefore sympathetic to some of their requests
27
Q

What resulted from the Millenary Petition in June 1603?

A

-James announced that all income from impropriated tithes would in future be devoted to paying better salaries to church ministers

28
Q

Define ‘Tithe’?

A

-1/10 of parishioner’s produce, which was paid as a salary to local clergymen

29
Q

Why was the Hampton Court Conference (1604) held?

A

-to establish how James wanted the Church settled & in response to Millenary Petition this religious conference was held

30
Q

What was the Hampton Court Conference (1604)?

A
  • religious conference
  • primary historical source for conference was written by William Barlow (representative of extreme wing of Church’s establishment)
  • led many to believe James was hostile to Puritans; yet had been shown he was willing to listen to their demands in Millenary Petition
31
Q

What was the serious clash of the Hampton Court Conference (1604)?

A
  • “no bishop, no king”
  • came when King mistakenly thought that Dr Reynolds (Puritan) advocated the abolition of episcopacy (government of Church by Bishops) not a modified reform
32
Q

What was the only permanent achievement from the Hampton Court Conference?

A

-beginning of a new English translation of the Bible = the King James Bible (completed in 1611)

33
Q

What was the King James Bible?

A
  • work of 47 scholars
  • translated sections of Bible into English
  • by removing marginalia from old Geneva Bible, the King James Bible became significant political vehicle reinforcing the King’s authority rather than Pope’s
  • though some Puritans continued to use Geneva Bible
34
Q

What was the previous Bible used before the King James Bible, & what was the problem with it?

A
  • before King James Bible, the Geneva Bible was the English translation most used by 16th C Protestants
  • had included marginalia (comments @ side of text) that undermined certain scriptural evidence on which James relied to define Kingship
35
Q

Why was Bancroft’s Canons (1604) held?

A

-as a settlement for all matters questioned by Puritans

36
Q

What happened for Bancroft’s Canons (1604)?

A
  • James gave his full support to the church laws known as Bancroft’s Canons; passed by a convocation of CoE clergymen
  • they upheld many orthodox doctrines & liturgies of CoE, as well as practices that had been condemned by Puritans in the Millenary Petition
  • meant persecuting Puritans!!
37
Q

Who was installed as new Archbishop of Canterbury in 1604? And why?

A
  • Richard Bancroft; as James intended to initiate a drive for uniformity w/ the 1604 canons
  • meant persecuting Puritans!!
38
Q

What did Richard Bancroft - Archbishop of Canterbury order in 1604?

A
  • ordered all clergy who refused to conform to the 1604 canons to be expelled from their positions
  • led to wave of petitions - only 1% of ministers (known as the ‘Silenced Brethren’ were actually removed for not conforming to the canons
39
Q

Why was the 1604-05 drive for conformity strange for James I?

A
  • this drive for conformity appears to be a temporary departure from James’ overacting pragmatic views
  • James publicly acknowledged the Puritan’s loyalty & after 1606 allowed more moderate reform beyond the 1604 settlement
40
Q

What was the timeline of events 1603-1626?

A
  • 1603 Millenary Petition
  • 1604 Jan; Hampton Court Conference
  • 1604 Sept; James approves Bancroft’s Canons
  • 1604 Dec; Richard Bancroft installed as Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1605 Gunpowder Plot
  • 1611 Completion of King James version of Bible
  • 1611 Mar; Arminian Lancelot Andrewes passed over for position of Archbishop of Canterbury; George Abbot appointed instead
  • 1626; York House Conference
41
Q

What happened w/ religious beliefs @ end of James I reign?

A

-religious tensions increased due to James’ apparent favouring of Arminianism @ end of reign

42
Q

What did James I help to maintain from Elizabeth in reference to religion?

A

-‘Jacobethan Balance’

43
Q

How was James’ favouring towards Arminianism established at the end of his reign?

A
  • had been annoyed at Puritan demands for reform & exasperated by their calls to support the Protestant cause in Europe
  • contrastingly, Arminians supported his diplomatic negations w/ Catholic Spain
  • he allowed Arminian clerics e.g. William Laud grater prominence in theological debates @ court
  • 1624 he didn’t censor Richard Montagu’s publication of an Arminian book ‘A New Gag for an Old Goose’
44
Q

What developed inside & outside of Court as result from Charles I’s favourites & him being out of touch w/ the Political Nation?

A
  • a ‘conspiracy mentality’
  • outsiders believed that Catholics (or Arminians) were in control or were subverting the King
  • in turn, Charles believed his difficulties w/ Parliament in years 1625-29 were an attempt by Puritans to attack the powers of the Crown
45
Q

Why was Charles’ favouring of Arminians politically dangerous?

A

-Charles I’s siding w/ Arminians, due to commitment to their beliefs, opposed to his father’s gradual shift to favour them was politically dangerous when set in context of his marriage to French Catholic Princess Henrietta Maria & his foreign policy 1625-29

46
Q

What was the problem w/ Henrietta Maria?

A
  • she was regarded as influencing Charles I towards Catholics & absolutism - held negative political consequences
  • her advice to him during crisis that led to civil war in 1642 was invariably to take a hard line
47
Q

What was Parliament’s problem w/ Richard Montagu?

A
  • Parliament attacked Charles for supporting the Arminian cleric Montagu
  • his work ‘A New Gag for an Old Goose’ put forwarded an anti-Calvinist argument, much to disgust of Puritans & other Protestants
  • Charles allowed this to be published without censorship
48
Q

What did Charles I do in response to Parliamentary attacks on Montagu?

A
  • Charles provocatively appointed him as his Royal Chaplain
  • was a clear statement of Charles’ approval of anti-Calvinism
  • he appeared unaware of the problems that could arise over religion
49
Q

Why was the York House Conference (1626) held?

A
  • at request of Puritan nobleman the Earl of Warwick & to avoid further pressure in Parliament on religious issues
  • Warwick intended conference as way to persuade Charles to move away from the anti-Calvinism of Arminians such as Montagu
50
Q

What was the York House Conference (1626)?

A
  • Charles’ ‘favourite’ Buckingham chaired theological debate @ his London home
  • focus on the writings of Montagu
51
Q

What stance did Buckingham take at the York House Conference (1626) & why?

A
  • although Buckingham had links to Warwick, he took stance in support of leading anti-Calvinist, William Laud
  • did this to reinforce his political relationship w/ Charles because, as favourite, his power was dependent on retaining the favour of the king
52
Q

What became clear from the York House Conference (1626)?

A

-clear that Charles I, who did not even consider attending discussion on his religious policy, would not be dissuaded from supporting the anti-Calvinist Arminians

53
Q

Who did Charles I appoint to positions in Summer of 1628? What did this mean?

A
  • William Laud = Bishop of London
  • Richard Montagu = Bishop of Chichester
  • by recommending these appointments Charles was clearly indicting his continued support for Arminianism
54
Q

What made the position of Royal Monarchs difficult?

A

-the varied viewpoints held across Britain after the Reformation in 1530s

55
Q

Compare Elizabeth I & James I stance over religion to Charles I?

A
  • Elizabeth & James took realistic & practical stance towards religious diversity; as means of maintaining support for their governance of Church
  • Charles, in line w/ his character, took more authoritarian stance; seeking to impose uniformity; in doing so he broke the ‘Jacobethan balance’ & forced moderate Calvinists to feel increasing sympathy to their fellow anti-Catholic Protestants e.g. PURITANS