Ch 10 The First Civil War: England, Scotland, Ireland Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10 The First Civil War: England, Scotland, Ireland Deck (40)
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1
Q

-How was the Scottish Rebellion of 1637 the start of the British Civil Wars?

=Civil War in Scotland 1642-45

A

-it led to a reaction in England & Ireland that led to civil wars between the 2 kingdoms in 1641 & 1642 respectively

2
Q

-Why was Charles forced to sign the October 1640 Truce of Ripon?

=Civil War in Scotland 1642-45

A
  • due to swift military defeat by the Covenanters during the Bishops War
  • Covenanter strength also meant Charles’ supporters were initially isolated & unable to undertake a significant military campaign
3
Q

-What was The Solemn League (1643) + Covenant? What was the problem with it for the Scottish? Example + issue with this?

=Civil War in Scotland 1642-45

A
  • military alliance formed between English Parliament & the Convenanters
  • it alienated some Scottish nobles to the point that some came to the support of Charles
  • e.g. the Scottish noble Earl of Montrose led Royalist forces north of the border against the Covenanters
  • his army won multiple victories 1644-45; yet the little material gain & support from Charles for these victories saw the people in Montrose’s force slowly leave the army to return to their homeland
4
Q

-How were Charles’ military hopes ended in Scotland in Sept 1645?

=Civil War in Scotland 1642-45

A

-a Covenanter army of 6,000 troops returned from England to Scotland & crushed the Earl of Montrose’s remaining forces at Philiphaugh

5
Q

-Why did civil war essentially start in Ireland?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A

-due to the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion in Oct 1641

6
Q

-What was formed in Ireland in May 1642 Who were their opponents?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A
  • many of the Gaelic Irish & Old English joined the rebellion & formed a confederation in May 1642
  • opponents were the Protestants in Ulster & those around Dublin commanded by the Earl of Ormond
7
Q

-How were the Ulster Protestants supported in April 1642?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A
  • supported by arrival of 10,000 Scottish troops financed by the English Parliament
  • by end of 1643, they had extended Protestant control in the north, but the Catholic confederation essentially held the rest of Ireland, apart from Dublin
8
Q

-What did Charles order to be signed in Sept 1643? What happened as a result of this?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A
  • a cessation to be signed by Earl of Ormond for a 1 year truce, between the new Catholic Confederation & the Protestants of England/Scotland
  • resultantly, approx 22,000 Irish troops (both Catholic & Protestant) were transported to England between Oct 1643 & June 1644 to aid Charles’ Royalist forces in the English Civil War
  • the Irish troops had little impact on Charles’ war efforts & proved counterproductive as them seemed to reinforce parliamentary propaganda of his desire to impose Catholicism by working w/ them
9
Q

-How did the aid of 22,000 Irish troops to Charles to be used in the English Civil War provoke English Parliament?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A

-provoked Parliament to form a military alliance w/ the Covenanters through The Solemn League & Covenant (Sept 1643)

10
Q

-What did Earl of Ormond signed w/ the Confederates in March 1646?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A

-Ormond signed a peace w/ the Confederates

11
Q

-What did Owen Roe O’Neill achieve in June 1646 & how did this affect Charles in the English Civil War?

=Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

A
  • Owen Roe O’Neill (representative of the Gaelic Irish) defeated the Scottish Covenanters at Benburb
  • further affected Charles’ in English Civil War as it made Gaelic Irish less inclined to identify a common cause w/ the Royalists, effectively ending Charles’ hopes of bringing more troops over from Ireland
12
Q

-What were the reasons for the defeat of Charles’ forces in Scotland & Ireland?

A
  • unable to coordinate forces within country or w/ other kingdoms
  • started w/ a weak position due to Rebellions of 1637 (Scottish) & 1641 (Irish)
  • forces clearly outnumbered
  • better organisation of opponents
  • opponents more religiously motivated
  • opponents better supplied
13
Q

Key Chronology: Civil War in Scotland 1642-45

  • 1644 Sept
  • 1645 Feb
  • 1645 May
  • 1645 Sept
A
  • 1644 Sept=Montrose’s Royalist forces defeat Covenanters @ Tippermuir
  • 1645 Feb=Montrose defeats Covenanters @ Inverlochy
  • 1645 May=Montrose defeats Covenanters @ Alford
  • 1645 Sept=Royalists crush Montrose’s forces @ Philiphaugh
14
Q

Key Chronology: Civil War in Ireland 1642-46

  • 1642 Apr
  • 1643 Sept
  • 1646 Mar
  • 1646 Jun
A
  • 1642 Apr=Anti-Catholic Scottish army of 10,000 lands in Ireland
  • 1643 Sept=Agreement between Ormond, on behalf of Charles & Irish Catholic Confederacy
  • 1646 Mar=Ormond, leader of Royalists in Ireland, signs peace treaty w/ Catholic Confederates
  • 1646 Jun=Irish Confederate victory over Scottish Covenanters @ Benburb
15
Q

-As Charles’ position collapsed in Scotland & Ireland, what did he also face?

A

-faced the defeat of his military hopes in England

16
Q

-Royalists in the First Civil War & their significance?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Charles I & his royal army=number of Royalist victories in 1643 though Charles & supporters did not coordinate their forces well (partly due to divided nature of royal councils & to Charles’ indecisiveness)
  • Council of War in Oxford=effective administrative organisation in early years of war
  • Earl of Newcastle=Newcastle didn’t march his northern Royalist army to support the London attack in Nov 1643, which otherwise could have brought a Royalist victory
  • Prince Rupert=joined Newcastle’s forces at Marston Moor in July 1644; this battle ended in a major royal defeat
17
Q

-Parliamentarians in the First Civil War & their significance?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • London Trained Bands=volunteers defended the capital in Nov 1643 & forced the royal army back; seen as a turning point in the war, arguably as Parliament’s control of London won them the First Civil War
  • Solemn League & Covenant=military, religious & political alliance between Parliament & Scottish Covenanters, formed in 1643; led to the Covenanters sending an army south to fight on Parliament’s side
  • Committee of Both Kingdoms=set up by Parliament w/ Scottish Covenanters in 1644 after the alliance above to manage civil war & finances; greatest achievement was creating & maintaining the New Model Army
  • General Thomas Fairfax & his northern parliamentary forces=Fairfax joined forces w/ the Eastern Association (parliamentarian army in the east) & the Scots @ Marston Moor
18
Q

What were significant events of Royalists Vs Parliament 1642-45?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Royalists prevented from taking London @ Turnham Green (Nov 1642)
  • 1643=number of Royalist victories, but none hampered Parliament’s ability to fight the war
  • Parliament had significant victory @ Marston Moor (July 1644), the largest Civil War battle; though they didn’t take advantage of the win & suffered defeats a few months later
  • the failures prompted Parliament to reorganise its forces & from this The New Model Army was formed under Thomas Fairfax & Oliver Cromwell (1645)
19
Q

-What destroyed Charles’ military capabilities in England at exactly the same time his position fell in Scotland & Ireland?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Defeat @ Naseby by the New Model Army defeated Charles’ military capabilities
  • Royalist commanders were dismissive of the newly formed NMA & thought they would have an easy victory
  • after a series of mopping-up campaigns in the west, the NMA had effectively defeated Charles’ Royalist forces by 1646
20
Q

-What did Charles do 5th May 1646? What had he hoped for?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Charles surrendered to Scottish forces in hope that they would give him better settlement terms than Parliament would
  • they promptly handed him back to the English Parliament, which placed him under guarded house arrest
21
Q

-How did the First English Civil War end?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A

-ended w/ the surrender of the remaining Royalist forces at Oxford in June 1646

22
Q

-Royalist Strengths?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • led by the recognised lawful ruler
  • more support from aristocracy & higher gentry (whom had financial reserves & military experience)
  • focused strategic objective: the taking of London
  • military aid from abroad, notably from Charles nephews Prince Rupert & Maurice
23
Q

-Royalist Weaknesses?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • areas under Royalist control generally poorer
  • clubmen (men who tried to defend their localities against both armies) particularly hampered Royalist forces who were seen as more exploitative of local communities than the disciplined NMA
  • Commissions of Array of dubious legality: some felt Royalists lacked legal weight to make others join their forces
24
Q

-How did Administration contribute to Royalist military failure?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • the Royalist Council of War @ Oxford was initially an effective organisation, in contrast to the tensions between the parliamentary field commanders & the MPs through the Committee of Both Kingdoms, which managed the war for Parliament
  • thought the Oxford Council suffered from its limited authority, w/ the Royalist commanders in the north/west basically being independent
  • Charles also decided to set up a separate council @ Bristol, which removed capable men
25
Q

-How did Indecisiveness contribute to Royalist military failure?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A

-Charles & Royalists proved indecisive in following through on their initial promising start to war; not only strategically but also in taking advantage of the greater experiences of Charles’ generals & the greater support from the aristocracy (financially)

26
Q

-How did the Generals contribute to Royalist military failure?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • early months of war, Charles used influential local men as lieutenant generals in their areas, in hopes they would rally local support
  • their lack of commitment & limited military experience weakened the Royalist war effort
  • Charles began to appoint men w/ military experience, notably his 2 nephews; further provoking division in Royalist councils
27
Q

-How did Division contribute to Royalist military failure?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Royalist councils had differing views which led to incoherent policy because the lack of leadership from Charles, as well as his failure to recognise/select the best advice
  • Hyde advised continuing attempts to settle w/ Parliament; whereas Henrietta Maria counselled a continued war until total victory was achieved
  • Prince Rupert also opposed a negotiated settlement until defeat was confirmed @ Naseby 1646
  • Henrietta Maria also stressed in her letters to Charles that it would be a diminution of his honour to negotiate
28
Q

-How did Charles as a Military Leader contribute to Royalist military failure?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Sept 1643, Charles signed a cessation w/ Catholic Irish rebels who had fought against Protestant rule in Oct 1641
  • troops brought over to England from Ireland proved ineffective
  • many of Charles’ supporters were disturbed by his willingness to use Catholics in arms in England
  • 117/603 were Catholic colonel officers during the war
  • Charles repeated this mistake by trying to negotiate a second peace treaty w/ the Irish Catholic rebels in 1645
29
Q

-How did Reliance on Foreign Aid contribute to Royalist military failure?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Charles’ use of nephews Prince Rupert & Maurice left him open to attack
  • Charles’ captured correspondence, which showed he was negotiating w/ the French & the Pope, was great propaganda for Parliament when they published some of the letters in The King’s Cabinet Opened
30
Q

What was the difference between the Royalists & Parliament in how they handled the Civil War?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Royalists’ weaknesses/mistakes were matched by Parliament’s growing strengths
  • Parliament was more flexible & brutal in its response to Civil War, enabling them to fight more effectively
  • Parliament also able to finance war effort more efficiently
31
Q

-How did Parliament’s war finance aid them in Parliamentary victory?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • John Pym organised war time administration @ Westminster
  • after outbreak of civil war, Parliament combined executive w/ representative authority & developed methods for running country without king
  • Committee of Both Kingdoms; seeking to control finances to fund war effort
  • the Assessment (Nov, 1642) raised substantial money=civil war tax directly on income, particularly land, used to raise money for parliamentary armies
32
Q

Parliamentary methods of raising money?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • weekly/monthly assessments=direct tax on income, particularly land
  • sequestrations=confiscation of Royalist land
  • compulsory loans=forced loans
  • excise=a duty/tax on goods; e.g. beer
33
Q

-How did John Pym & alliances aid in Parliamentary victory?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Pym vital in uniting Parliament, despite the different factions; persuaded members to accept formal alliance - The Solemn League & Covenant - w/ Scottish Covenanters (1643)
  • in return for agreement for Scots to establish Presbyterianism in England, they sent 21,000 men into England to aid Parliament
  • although this army proved disappointing, in practice it did force Charles’ northern army to remain in north
34
Q

What were the advantages of Parliament holding London?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • propaganda=London was centre of printing so advantageous production of propaganda
  • finance=control of London gave Parliament access to resources, especially City loans
  • manpower=trained bands were vital at Turnham Green,; London also home to 1/10 of English population
  • port=London was England’s largest port
  • industry=London was chief industrial centre & thus a supplier of arms, clothes & shoes
  • administration=Parliament could take advantage of already established centre of admin in the capital
35
Q

-How did Local Administration & local communities aid in Parliamentary victory?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • set up special committees in each county; led to employment of local men who were activists dedicated to the cause; anyone not supporter was removed=led to replacement of traditional ruling elite=Parliament showed much greater willingness to do this than Charles had
  • Parliament managed to control areas relatively rich compared to Royalist areas
  • both sides encountered resistance of local communities that resented the cost of war; led to growth of the ‘clubman’ movement=armed groups of men in West & South opposing financial demands of both armies; became more favourable to NMA as it came closer to winning war through Fairfax’s willingness to negotiate w/ them directly
36
Q

-How did Control of the Navy aid in Parliamentary victory?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • Parliament able to supply its forces & strongholds e.g. Hull & Plymouth
  • Parliament could hamper the supply of Royalist areas
  • prevented Charles receiving supplies & men from mainland Europe & Ireland
37
Q

-How did the New Model Army aid in Parliamentary victory?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • 1644-45 Parliament undertook political & military restructuring e.g. NMA
  • regular paid, professional soldiers; motivated by their Puritan religion to fight in the war
  • meant when the Civil War became a war of attrition (where armies would gradually wear down each other’s strength), Parliament would be in stronger position
38
Q

What was the human death rate of the First English Civil War?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A

-190,000 deaths (3.7% of England’s population)

39
Q

-What was Charles I stance by end of First Civil War (1646)?

=First Civil War in England 1642-46

A
  • although defeated militarily, he was still in strong position in 1646
  • as King, he was regarded as essential to a lasting settlement; his knowledge of his own importance in the political system formed the basis of his actions in years up to 1648
40
Q

What was increasing between the Presbyterian Scots & the New Model Army by 1646?

A
  • increasing tension between Presbyterian Scots & & religious radicals in NMA, e.g. Cromwell
  • once Royalists were defeated in 1646, Scots expected English Parliament to bring Presbyterianism to England for 3 years (as set by terms of The Solemn League) whereas MPs/Cromwell saw this as a threat to the religious freedom they wanted to enforce
  • thus tension was a key context of the failure to reach settlement 1646-49