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Flashcards in Ch 11 The Second Civil War Deck (49)
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1
Q

What was Charles position at end of First English Civil War 1646?

A
  • defeated militarily; but strong position to negotiate for settlement due to being King
  • Charles refused to consider Parliament’s settlements seriously; political move to play upon the divisions between English Parliament, Scots & NMA
2
Q

What did Charles’ stubbornness for post-war settlement encourage within Parliament?

A
  • encouraged divisions between moderates & radicals that had emerged within Parliament over how to fight the Civil War
  • by 1646, the 2 parliamentary factions labelled the Political Presbyterians & Political Independents
  • indicate a religious division & a political one
3
Q

Key Info on Political Presbyterians?

A
  • key figures= Holles & Stapleton
  • more moderate in nature, called ‘Peace Party’
  • generally conservative in social/political matters
  • opposed to religious toleration (wanted Presbyterianism)
  • favoured a negotiated peace w/ King & willing to accept settlement on minimal terms (including the disbanding of NMA!)
  • increasingly disappointed by NMA
  • drew closer to Scots
  • supported Presbyterian Church to prevent social revolution
4
Q

Key Info on Political Independents?

A
  • key figures: Oliver Cromwell & Henry Ireton
  • more radical in nature, called ‘War Party’
  • disliked the authoritarianism of Scottish Presbyterianism as they wanted religious independence
  • wanted a considerable measure of religious toleration
  • allied w/ NMA (seen as their security against Charles)
  • willing to settle w/ King & disband NMA only IF Charles accepted limitations to his power!
5
Q

What was the complexity of the Parliamentary factions?

A
  • messy division because some religious Presbyterians supported Political Independents
  • therefore, the religious views of the factions cannot be absolutely assumed
  • summarised by Robert Ashton
6
Q

In 1646 which Parliamentary faction was the most influential?

A
  • Political Presbyterians; most of the country would have favoured them due to their peace policy
  • the country was weary of war & wanted peace
  • in 1646, if Charles had accepted the reasonable terms presented to him by the Political Presbyterians, the Political Independents & the NMA would have gone along w/ the agreement & their would have been no second civil war
7
Q

What were the Newcastle Propositions (July 1646)?

A

-Political Presbyterians presented their plan for settlement to Charles July 1646

8
Q

What were the main features of the Newcastle Propositions (July 1646)?

A
  • religion: Charles was to accept the establishment of Presbyterianism in England for 3 years
  • militia: Parliament was to control the militia (armed forces) for 20 years (regarded as the likely remainder of Charles’ life)
  • Parliament: the Triennial Act was to remain, guaranteeing regular parliaments as a limit to monarch’s power
  • Royalists: only 58 Royalists were not to be pardoned, thus hopefully encouraging others to accept defeat
9
Q

What was Charles’ response to the Newcastle Propositions (July 1646)?

A
  • response was to stall; he had no intention of agreeing to them, but did not say this directly in order to allow the divisions between his opponents to develop
  • settlement was hampered by Parliament’s political divisions, further deepened by religious differences
10
Q

How was instability created in the winter of 1646/47?

A
  • instability because Political Presbyterians tried to get Charles to agree to a revised, more lenient version of Newcastle Propositions; also seeking to implement what in effect amounted to counter-revolution:
  • demobilising the NMA but keeping a smaller force to got to Ireland to crush the Irish Catholics
  • creating an alternative ‘safe’ army based on the London Trained Bands
11
Q

How did Political Presbyterians’ leader abuse the NMA?

A
  • leader Denzil Holles abused them in the Declaration of Dislike=document stating army petitioners were ‘enemies to the state & disturbers of the public peace’
  • the Newcastle Propositions & Declaration of Dislike were offensive to NMA; they (as well as their allies the Political Independents) saw the Political Presbyterians as attempting to raise a rival army from forces remaining regionally in the West & North that were led by sympathetic leaders rather than NMA officers
12
Q

How did the Political Presbyterians inadvertently create a new radical force in the political settlement?

A
  • their strategy was based on fact that Parliament faced huge financial problem: owing army £3 million
  • in attempting to implement their strategy they inadvertently brought the NMA as a new radical force into the political settlement
13
Q

What incensed the NMA?

A
  • thy were owed £3million in wages; they feared being made to disband before this money was paid
  • there was possibility of being charged w/ offensives committed during the war, as Parliament had not passed an indemnity act (would provide soldiers w/ insurance against prosecution for actions taken during the civil war)
14
Q

How was the New Model Army created?

A
  • by Parliament early 1645
  • merged three regional armies, w/ aim of making war effort more effective
  • first commanded by Thomas Fairfax, w/ Oliver Cromwell as lieutenant general
15
Q

What impact did the NMA’s entry into politics have on settlement?

A

-entry into politics (especially due to financial reasons) had significant impact on settlement; once it became a political force, it became central to all that followed until the restoration of monarchy in 1660

16
Q

Key Info on Thomas Fairfax (1612-71)?

A
  • was general in Parliament’s Northern Association Army
  • 1645 appointed as commander-in-chief of NMA
  • excellent general but not great w/ politics
  • w/ NMA’s politicisation, he found himself sidelined by his subordinates like Cromwell & Ireton
17
Q

Key Info on Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)?

A
  • member of minor gentry
  • elected as MP in 1640
  • during First Civil War served as lieutenant general of the Eastern Association Army
  • second in command of NMA
  • naturally politically conservative
  • came to believe that God had condemned Charles (after his experience of battle within NMA)
  • increasingly took lead in settlement politics
18
Q

What was NMA’s opposition to Parliament based on (1646-49)?

A
  • wanted their material grievances addressed (wages paid!)
  • Parliament (dominated by Political Presbyterians) failed to address NMA’s concerns; thus the army’s statements became increasingly more radical
19
Q

What did the NMA do March 1647?

A
  • NMA first petitioned Parliament to readdress their grievances
  • Parliament condemned this petition
20
Q

What antagonised NMA in May 1647?

A
  • the Commons accepted Charles’ third reply to Newcastle Propositions (he conceded Presbyterianism for 3 years & Parliamentary control of militia for 10 years) but Charles was hoping for further negotiations
  • this all antagonised NMA as they felt the terms were too lenient & that Charles could not be trusted to honour them
  • 25 May 1647: the Commons voted to disband NMA w/ only 8 weeks worth of pay to them!
21
Q

What did NMA do @ Newmarket in June 1647?

A

-in response to Common’s vote to disband army & on orders from Fairfax, NMA holds a general meeting @ Newmarket
=this saw to the organisation of a more formal political structure, the General Council of the Army led by Fairfax but dominated by Ireton & Cromwell (discussed strategy)
=consisted of 2 commissioned officers & 2 adjutators (men/junior officers who took leading role in politicisation & political life of the army) from each regiment
=hoped in this body to lead the army to settlement

22
Q

What happened to Charles on 2 June 1647?

A
  • Charles seized by NMA
  • Cornet (lowest rank army officer) George Joyce forced Charles out of Parliamentary house arrest & took him to army’s headquarters @ Newmarket (status of Cornet is significant as it shows that even the lowest ranked officers no longer respected the King!)
  • 2 days later Joyce wrote to Cromwell: ‘we have secured the king… you must let us know what we shall do’
  • NMA’s physical control of Charles was what made them a significant force in the politics of settlement
23
Q

What did NMA do on 4 June 1647?

A
  • produced a Humble Remonstrance, declaring that they would not disband until their grievances were met
  • these included indemnity (protection against loss of financial burden) & the removal of Holles’ Political Presbyterian faction
  • NMA began slow march to London to put pressure on Parliament (enemy)
24
Q

What did NMA do on 5 June 1647?

A

-NMA presented their position to Parliament in the Solemn Engagement (written by Henry Ireton)

25
Q

What happened between NMA leadership & Charles on 7 June 1647?

A
  • Fairfax, Crowwell & Ireton went to Childerley where Charles was being held; had meeting first of which became formal negotiations between army leadership & Charles
  • Ireton = army’s chief spokesperson
  • Charles eventually lodged @ Hampton Court
  • to reinforce the Solemn Engagement, impeachment charges were drawn up by NMA & presented against 11 MPs including Holles in July 1647 (army saw Holles as leading Parliament against them
26
Q

-What appeared on 14 June 1647?

A
  • A Representation of the Army, written by Ireton & Lambert & aided by Cromwell appeared
  • declared NMA was ‘not a mere mercenary army’ & outlined the fundamentals of the army’s political position
27
Q

What was outlined as the fundamentals of the NMA’s political position on 14 June 1647, in the Representation of the Army document?

A
  • a purge of Parliament
  • future parliaments of fixed duration
  • guaranteed right of freedom of the people to petition Parliament
  • an extension of religious freedom
  • NMA declared itself as defending ‘our own & the people’s just rights & liberties’
  • they had made clear that settlement had to take their grievances into account
  • the fact that NMA had secured physical control of Charles added weight to their political stance
28
Q

What happened on 16 July 1647?

A
  • NMA’s General Council met @ Reading
  • Ireton presented his Heads of the Proposals to rest of army
  • though most people had become impatient w/ slow progress in achieving their demands by following what they thought were too moderate plans outlined by Ireton & Cromwell
  • due to the ‘moderate’ terms of the Heads of the Proposal having been directly negotiated w/ Charles, it opened Ireton & Cromwell up to charges of hypocrisy
29
Q
Key Chronology?
July 1646=
June 1647=
July 1647=
Dec 1647=
Apr 1648=
Aug 1648=
A

July 1646=Newcastle Propositions
June 1647=Humble Remonstrance; Solemn Engagement; Representation of the Army
July 1647=The Heads of the Proposal
Dec 1647=Engagement between Charles I & Scots
Apr 1648=Windsor Prayer Meeting
Aug 1648=Battle of Preston

30
Q

Heads of the Proposal Key Info & Points?

A

-was NMA’s own settlement plan; written by Ireton & Lambert w/ Cromwell’s aid
-published 2 Aug 1647
=regular biennial parliaments
=reform of parliamentary representation
=parliamentary control of army/navy
=parliamentary appointment of great offices of state for 10 years
=religious settlement that maintained the national Church w/ bishops but no coercive power
=Act of Oblivion (pardon) that exempted only a few Royalists from punishment

  • limits placed on Parliament through biennial elections, redistribution of seats & issue of indemnity was clear reflection of NMA’s experience over last 2 years
  • other key feature that while King was limited by Parliament & a selected council, there was no check on his negative voice; episcopacy (bishops governing Church) without disciplinary powers was to be allowed & there was an assurance of Charles ‘personal rights’
31
Q

What did NMA’s control of Charles allow them?

A
  • allowed them to negotiate directly w/ him their own settlement plan
  • (it is possible that the concessions to Charles in the Heads of the Proposal came about as result of Ireton’s direct negotiations w/ him)
32
Q

What had Ireton & Cromwell shown in their desire to ensure settlement?

A

-showed their desire for an essentially MODERATE settlement; their willingness to compromise w/ Charles brought division in the army to a critical point

33
Q

By the time of the Putney debates, what did army officers realise about Charles?

A
  • army officers negotiating w/ Charles over the Heads of the Proposals realised that he was not negotiating candidly
  • Charles had audacity to remark to Ireton “without me, you will fail”
  • Charles’ failure to take NMA’s settlement plans seriously further radicalised the army & made some contemplate removing the king
34
Q

What happened on 26 July 1647?

A
  • (the Political Presbyterians organised demonstrations in favour of peace)
  • w/ help from Denzil Holles, a mob invaded the Commons & forcefully passed a resolution to invite the king to London
35
Q

What was happening on 3 Aug 1647?

A

-NMA was just outside London, where the Political Independents joined them after walking out of Parliament

36
Q

What finally happened on 6 Aug 1647?

A

-NMA marched into Westminister

37
Q

How was Charles deceitfulness confirmed? What was the response to this?

A
  • confirmed by his escape from Hampton Court in Nov 1647
  • in response to the new military threat posed by Charles’ escape & his subsequent negotiations w/ the Scots; the NMA officers & lower ranks reunited
  • an attempted Leveller-inspired mutiny in the army was crushed
38
Q

What was the situation like 1647?

A

-people were weary of the taxes to fund NMA, inflation, the county committees & the harshness of being at war

39
Q

What was sent to Charles while he was imprisoned?

A
  • the Four Bills; an amalgamation of Parliament’s Newcastle Propositions & the NMA’s Heads of the Proposal
  • Charles formally rejected the Four Bills at the end of Dec 1647
40
Q

What happened on 11 Nov 1647?

A

-Charles escaped from Hampton Court & began to negotiate w/ the Scots to help him campaign against Parliament

41
Q

What was The Engagement of Dec 1647?

A
  • Charles arranged a secret meeting w/ Engagers (a faction of Scottish Covenanters who were disappointed w/ their alliance w/ English Parliament)
  • Charles agreed that England would have a 3 year period of Presbyterianism in return for the Scots’ help in invading England against Parliament & restoring him to power
  • the Scots saw the agreement as securing their position in Scotland, w/ 3 years adequate time for Presbyterian to establish itself
  • this engagement meant that at some point, the Covenanters would invade England against their previous allies & trigger a second civil war
  • threat of Scottish invasion & another civil war hardened the parliamentarians & the army
42
Q

What did Parliament pass in January 1648, as a result of The Engagement (Dec 1647)?

A

-passed the Vote of No Addresses stating that there would be no further negotiations w/ Charles

43
Q

What was the significance of the Windsor Prayer Meeting (April 1648)?

A
  • during Second Civil War, the NMA gathered @ Windsor to pray before facing their enemies
  • reflected on Bible passages & preachers declared Charles I was the ‘man of blood’
  • SIGNIFICANT: as it was @ Windsor that the NMA debated regicide for the first time
44
Q

Why was religion a significant element of the NMA’s success 1645-53?

A
  • godly officers=core of officers, particularly in cavalry, were v devout; gave army its religious drive
  • chaplains=appointed for each regiment & were closely connected to the colonel of the regiment; provided religious leadership through sermons, Bible studies & accompanied NMA on marches, campaigns & into battle
  • visual iconography=each regiment had its own banner & religious mottos
  • fasting/self-reflection=used to prepare for tests that the army was to face
  • lay preaching=soldiers themselves preaching
  • minority=alienation from rest of society reinforced their own self image of godliness, which led to high morale
  • equality=creation of General Council of the Army in 1647 as well as the Reading & Putney Debates, all partly stemmed from religious belief that all were valued by God
45
Q

What events led up to Royalist Defeat?

A
  • General Fairfax & Ireton tacked risings in Kent; Cromwell sent to South Wales & Lambert held the northern front to slow down any Scottish invasion until southern reinforcements could arrive
  • July 1648 a large troop of Scottish forces entered England to join 4,000 northern Royalists :(
  • Aug 1648, having crushed the rebels in South Wales, Cromwell went North & joined w/ Lambert to face the Scottish Royalists @ Preston; despite being heavily outnumbered their disciplined army won victory against the Scots’ Royalist force
  • Oct 1648 Cromwell & Lambert went to Edinburgh to ensure that the anti-Engagers in Scotland led by Argyll were securely in power
46
Q

What threatened to divide the NMA across England & Wales?

A
  • series of Royalist & anti-Parliament/Presbyterian risings in South Wales, Kent, East Anglia, & Yorkshire throughout 1648 threatened to divide NMA across England & Wales
  • yet the ‘revolt in the provinces’ was uncoordinated & thus the NMA was able to split its forces efficiently to deal w/ the threats
  • at same time, NMA faced imminent invasion from the Scots
47
Q

Second English Civil War Key Chronology: 1648

  • March-July
  • April-Aug
  • May-June
  • June-Dec
  • July
  • 17/19 Aug
  • 4/7 Oct
A
  • March-July: Rising in South Wales
  • April-Aug: Rising in East Anglia, centred in Colchester
  • May-June: Rising in Kent
  • June-Dec: Rising in Yorkshire, centred @ Pontefract
  • July: Scots invade England in support of Charles
  • 17/19 Aug: Cromwell & Lambert defeat Scots @ Preston
  • 4/7 Oct: Cromwell & Lambert secure anti-Engager power while in Edinburgh
48
Q

What was the Second English Civil War like in comparison w/ the First?

A
  • Second more brutal than First
  • in securing victory, NMA leaders (particularly millenarians like Cromwell, Ireton & Harrison) were even more convinced that God was directing the NMA & that God condemned Charles
49
Q

Why was the Second English Civil War a turning point?

A
  • many, especially those in army, now regarded settlement w/ Charles & Royalists as impossible
  • thus Royalist leaders were tried & executed by NMA
  • in contrast, many in Parliament wanted to reopen negotiations w/ King; as increasingly worried about NMA’s radicalism, they felt that only a settlement w/ King could prevent any further breakdown of order
  • it was to be the division between NMA & Parliament after Second Civil War that became crucial in leading to the execution of Charles I