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Flashcards in A&P 2.1 neural system Deck (43)
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Holistic standpoint

Defined

Focuses on seeing and treating the body as a whole and how cells of the body communicate together

1

Whole body communicating networks

Fibrous (fascial) net
Neural net
Fluid net

2

Fibrous (fascial) net

Communicates how?

Essentially a tissue-fascia that invests continuously all body structures

Communicates mechanical information via tugs & pulls

3

Neural network

Communicates how?

Communicates coded electrical information

4

Fluid network

Communicates how

Communicates via hormones/chemicals

5

Major structures of nervous system

Or anatomy of the nervous system

4

Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Sensory receptors

6

Major structural divisions

Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system

7

Central nervous system or CNS

Brain
Spinal cord

8

Peripheral nervous system or PNS

All the nervous tissue outside the CNS

Divided by structures innervated

Nerves and receptors

9

Peripheral nervous system PNS

Divided how

Divided regionally or by anatomy

10

Cranial nerves

PNS

Number


Cranial nerves CN (I-XII) 1-12 - nerves from the brain

11

Spinal nerves

PNS

Number


Spinal nerves (31 pairs ) come from vertebrae

12

PNS divided into 3 parts

Somatic division (SNS)
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Enteric nervous system (ENS)

13

Somatic Nervous System (SNS) composed of

Somat = body
Muscle of the day
Motor units to skeletal muscles (voluntary)

*VOLUNTARY and conscious

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Autonomic division (ANS)

Motor unit and sensory unit from smooth and cardiac muscles and glands (involuntary)
Neurons go from muscles to glands
Sensory information from chemicals
**** INVOLUNTARY and subconscious (autopilot)


Two subdivisions

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

15

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Sympathetic division

Flight or flight

Survival mode

16

ANS

Parasympathetic division

Rest and relax

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Enteric Nervous System (ENS)

"Brain of the gut"

Extends most of the gastrointestinal tract


INVOLUNTARY

18

Major functions of the nervous system

3

Major function of the nervous system and functional classification of neurons regulate all activities
***all are both conscious and subconscious



Sensation or sensory function
Integration
Motor response or motor function

19

Sensation

Or sensory function
Detection or changes in the body's internal and external environment
*sensory (afferent) neuron is the anatomy that does the function (PNS)

20

Integration

Processing and interpretation of sensations
Examples of this are consciousness of sensation, thoughts, ouch, tickle
Happens in the CNS
Interneurons (association neurons) - connect the sensory and motor neurons in 90% of the body

21

Motor function

Causes the muscular contractions or glandular secretions
Action or reaction to sensation and integration
Motor (efferent) neuron - is the anatomy that functions (PNS)

22

SAME

SA = sensory or afferent

ME = motor or efferent

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Nervous tissue

2 parts

Neurons
Neuroglia

24

Neurons

Conducting cells
Electrically excitable
Conduct signals

25

Neuralgia

Also called gila
Support cells

Hyperplasia of glial cells or neuroglia is brain cancer

26


Hyperplasia of glial cells



Hyperplasia of glial cells or neuroglia is brain cancer

27

Major parts of neurons - peripheral ONLY

3

Dendrites
Cell body
Axon

28

Dendrites

Cell process that receive information toward the cell body
The receiving end of the cell

(collects information)

29

Cell body

Soma
Main portion containing the cell nucleus

30

Axon

Conducts impulses/info away from the cell body
The transmitting end of the cell

(Gives information)

Central nervous system only sends and receives information to and from the neurons

31



Central nervous system only sends and receives information to and from the

Neurons

32

Extensior carpi radialis longus

A, I, O

Origin - distal 1/3 lateral supracondylar ridge (humerus) and lateral epicondyle via common extensor tendon

I - base 2nd metacarpal

A - extension and radial deviation of wrist

33

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

A, I, O

O - Lateral epicondyle via common extensor tendon

I - base of 3rd metacarpal

A - extension and radial deviation of wrist

34

Palaris longus


A, I, O

O - medial epicondyle via the flexor tendon

I - palmar aponeurosis

A - flexion of wrist

* not present in everyone
**only tendon not under flexor retinaculum

35

Anterior forearm

Anterior forearm - flexors
Proximal attachment/origin
Attach to medial epicondyle
Common flexor tendon

Know elbow joints 2

Figure 3.6. Bones of forearm and hand. 110

36


Posterior forearm

Olecranon fossa

Posterior forearm - exterior
Lateral epicondyle
Proximal attachment
Origin

Common extensor tendon

Page 111

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Ulnaris

Adducts
Medial
Ulnar deviation

38

Radialis

Abducts
Lateral
Radial deviation

39

Digitorum

Fingers

40

Carpi

Wrist

41

Palmar aponeurosis

Flexor retinaculum. Retinere - to retain

42

Ulna bony landmarks to know

Olecranon process
Ulnar collateral ligament