A&P 2.13 neurotransmitters Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 2.13 neurotransmitters Deck (26)
1

Deep six lateral/external rotators of the hip in order they attach to femur superior to inferior and lateral to medial as they attach to the trochanter

Piriformis
Gamellus superior
Obturator internus
Gemellus inferior
Obturator externus
Quadratus femorus

PGOGOQ

2

Piriformis


A, I, O

A- lateral rotation of the femur and extension of the hip; abduction, horizontal abduction, and medial rotation of the FLEXED HIP

I - distal attachment - upper border of the greater trochanter (superior aspect)

O - proximal attachment - anterior surface of the sacrum

Pear shaped

3

Gamellus superior

A, I, O

A - lateral rotation of the femur/hip (extension)

I - distal attachment - medial surface of the greater trochanter

O - proximal attachment -ischial spine (dorsal surface)

4

Gemellus inferior

A, I, O

A - lateral rotation of the femur/hip (extension)

I - distal attachment - medial surface of greater trochanter

O - proximal attachment - ischial tuberosity

5

Synapse

Defined

The place where signals are transmitted from one neuron (presynaptic neuron) to another neuron (postsynaptic neuron) or a postsynaptic cell such as a muscle fiber or gland

6

Two types of synapses

Electrical

Chemical

7

Electric synapse found

Between cardiac muscle cells and some smooth muscle cells

8

Chemical synapse

General

Most common type of synapse in the body

Uses chemicals called neurotransmitters to send a signal from the presynaptic cell to the post synaptic cell

PRIMARILY ACYTLECHOLINE

9

Three structures make up a chemical synapse

Synaptic knob (presynaptic)
Synaptic cleft
Plasma membrane of a postsynaptic cell

10

Nerve cell = neuron

.

11

Neurotransmitter

Defined

Chemicals by which neurons communicate

They are the means by which neurons talk to one another

12

Neurotransmitter

How they work

They are released by a Neuron, diffuse across the synapse, and bind to a postsynaptic cell (usually another neuron)

13

Neurotransmitters act to

Facilitate/stimulate

Or

Inhibit action potentials at synapses throughout the body

14

Neurotransmitters classified by

Function

Chemical structure

15

Neurotransmitters

Classified by function

2

Excitatory

Inhibitory

16

Excitatority

Causes depolarization (signal continues)

17

Inhibitory

Causes hyperpolarization (slows down or stops signal)

18

Neurotransmitters


5

Acetylcholine
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Endorphins

19

Acetylcholine

Excitatory (skeletal muscle) or

inhibitory (cardiac muscle),

located in junctions with motor effectors (muscles, glands), and many parts of the brain also involved in memory

20

Dopamine

Mostly inhibitory, involved in emotions/moods and in regulating motor control - located in the brain and the autonomic nervous system

PARKINSON'S

21

Epinephrine/norepinephrine

Both are excitatory and inhibitory

E acts as a hormone when secreted by sympathetic neurosecretory cells of the adrenal gland

N regulates sympathetic effectors, in brain, involved emotional response. Also known as adrelinine FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE

22

Endorphins

Mostly inhibitory, acts like opiates to block pain, located in several regions of the CNS, retina, and intestinal tract

23

Neuromuscular junction

Defined

A type of connection between a motor neuron fiber and a muscle cell (chemical synapse)

24

Neuromuscular junction


How it works

Nerve impulse reaches the end of a motor neuron fiber and small vesicles release acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft

Acetylcholine diffuses across to the sarcolemma of the adjacent muscle fiber and finds receptor sites

When the receptor sites are filled they initiate an electrical impulse in the sarcolemma

Impulse ultimately causes contraction of the muscle fiber

25

Fight or flight response neurotransmitter

Norepinephrine

25

Excitation

Process of synaptic transmission and induction of an impulse is called excitation