A&P 2.17 Endrocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 2.17 Endrocrine System Deck (40)
1

Sartorius

A, I, O

Proximal attachment : ASIS

Distal attachment: proximal, medial tibial shaft

Part of pes anserinus (goose foot)

Action: assists flexion of hip, assists flexion of knee, medial rotation of the tibia (knee flexed)

2

Pes anserinus

Goose foot

SGT

SARTORIUS, GRACILIS, SEMITENDINOSUS

3

Nervous system and endocrine system

Types of tissue: CMEN (CT, M, epithelial, N )

- endocrine system is glandular epithelial tissue
- both function to achieve & maintain stability of the internal environment (homeostasis)

- they may work alone or together as the neoendrocrine system. Performing communication, integration and control

4

Two main regulators of homeostasis

Nervous system
Endrocrine system

5

Major link between nervous system and Endrocrine

Hypothalamus

6

Nervous system

Regulates by using neurotransmitters in synapses to single target tissue.

It's faster and has a shorter lived response

7

Endrocrine

Regulates by releasing hormones into the blood then to target tissue throughout the body
- slower but lasts for minutes-days

8

Neuroendocrine system

Nervous system and endocrine system working together

9

Hypothalamus

A neuroendrocrine gland due to its dual function

Examples: sleeping, walking, eating, metabolism

10

Thalamus

Sensory relay between perception and sensation

11

Exocrine

Secrete substances via DUCTS ONTO FREE SURFACES - skin, lumen inside organ, or cavity- larger spaces not generally part of a tube

Examples: earwax, sweat, mucous, digestive glands

12

Endocrine

Secrete HORMONES INTO THE BLOOD
Goes from the glands and diffuses into interstitial fluid into the blood to target tissues

13

Nervous system versus endocrine

Chemical

Neurotransmitter

Hormone

14

Nervous system versus endocrine

Location

Synapes


Blood

15

Nervous system versus endocrine

Speed

Microseconds - fast

Minutes-hours - slow

16

Nervous system versus endocrine

Length of effect

Microseconds - short

Minutes-hours-days

17

Nervous system versus endocrine

Effector tissue

Neuron, muscle or gland


Variety of tissues and organs

18

Norepinephrine and epinephrine

Neurotransmitters versus hormones

Neurotransmitters in synapse

Hormone in the blood

19

Nervous system versus endocrine

Distance traveled

Short distance across the synapse

Long distance thought the blood stream

20

Organs/Glands List

from superior to inferior

Acronym

particularly happy people try positions that always provide orgasmic treats

---Thanks Gene!

21

Glands and organs from superior to inferior

Pineal gland - cranial cavity - pine coned shaped
Hypothalamus - cranial cavity - below thalamus
Pituitary gland- cranial cavity - below hypothalamus
Thyroid gland- neck - below Adam's apple
Parathyroid gland- on posterior thyroid
Thymus - mediastinum - sternum
Adrenal glands - on top of kidneys (retroperitoneum) - serous membrane of abdominal cavity
Pancreas - abdominal cavity upper left quadrant
Ovaries - pelvic cavity right and left lower quadrant
Testes - scrotum

22

Retroperitoneum

Defined

Serous membrane of abdominal cavity

23

Overall function of hormones

4

Helps regulate:
- internal environment (interstitial fluid)
- contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers
- glandular secretions
- some immune system functions

Growth and development
Reproductive systems
Circadian rhythms

24

Thyroid gland

Located in the neck, on the anterior and lateral surface of the trachea, just below the larynx (voice box)

Made of two lateral lobes and a narrow connecting isthmus

25

Parathyroid glands

Four nodules embedded in the tissue of the posterior thyroid bilaterally

26

Thyroid hormones

(TH) thyroid hormone

(CT) calcitonin

27

Thyroid hormone

Actually two hormones

(T3) triiodothyronine - thyroid gland, follicular cells (source), general (target) - INCREASES METABOLISM

(T4) tetraiodothyronine - thyroid gland, follicular cells (source), general target - INCREASES METABOLISM (usually converted to T3 first)

28

Calcitonin

Thyroid gland (parafollicular cells) , bone tissue (target), increases calcium storage in the bone, LOWERING Ca++ LEVELS

29

Parathyroid hormone

PTH
parathyroid glands (source), bone tissue/kidneys (target), increases calcium removal from storage in bone and produces the the active form of vitamin D in the kidneys, increasing absorption of calcium from intestines and INCREASING BLOOD Ca++ LEVELS

30

PTH AND CT

Opposite effects

ANTAGONIST HORMONES

31

Thyroid hormone abnormalities

3

Hyper secretion
Goiter
Hypo secretion

32

Hyper-secretion

Too much - T3 and T4
Causes skinny GRAVES DISEASE

33

Graves' disease

Autoimmune disease
Unexplained weight loss
Nervousness
Increased heart rate
Protrusion of eyeballs

34

Exophthalmos

Protrusion of the eyeballs

35

Goiter

Enlarged thyroid gland from lack of iodine in the diet
Big swollen neck

IT IS A SYMPTOM, NOT AN ACTUAL PATHOLOGY

36

Hypo-secretion

Too little T3 or T4

Overweight

Two types

Cretonism and hypothyroidism

37

Cretonism

Congenital hypothyroidism

Retarded growth and sexual development with possible mental retardation

At birth need thyroid hormone treatment for life

38

Hypothyroidism

In adults
Weight gain
Temperature sensitivity -cold
Depression
Dry skin
Sunken in eyes

39

Enopthalmos

Sunken in eyes

40

Target cells

Cells in any tissue or organ with a specific receptor for that hormone

Some cells receive both hormones and neurotransmitters