A&P 2.18 pineal, parathyroid, thymus & pancreas Flashcards Preview

A&P 2 > A&P 2.18 pineal, parathyroid, thymus & pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 2.18 pineal, parathyroid, thymus & pancreas Deck (18)
1

Tibialis anterior

A, I, O

Proximal attachment - proximal 2/3 of the lateral tibia and the interosseous membrane

Distal attachment - medial cuneiform and base of the 1st metatarsal

Action - dorsiflexion at ankle, inversion (rotates plantar surface toward midline)

2

Inversion

Rotates plantar surface towards midline

3

Leg compartments

4

Posterior
Deep posterior
Lateral
Anterior

Trail guides 367

4

Graves' disease

Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone

5

Calcitrol

Active vitamin D

6

Pineal gland

Location - diencephalon of the brain (3rd ventricle)
Hormone - melatonin
Target tissue - hypothalamus (brain to brain - diencephalon to hypothalamus)

Effect: regulates body clock, promotes sleepiness, may involve reproduction, circadian rhythm
(More produced at night)

Pine cone shaped

7

Parathyroid gland

Location- posterior surface of thyroid (4 nodules)
Hormone - PTH
target tissue - bone, kidneys
Effect- increases osteoclasts, increase calcium in blood, increases absorption of calcium from food via intestines, promotes formation and release of calcitrol

8

Thymus gland

Location: mediastinum
Hormone: thymosin (educates T cells)
Target tissue- immune system
Effect- promotes formation & maturation of T cells

Large in children, begins to atrophy throughout life

Considered a primary lymphatic organ
Thumping the thymus gland improves the immune system

9

Heterocine gland

2

Has both endocrine and exocrine functions

Pancreas and gonads

10

Pancreas

Location- left upper quadrant, head is in the curve of the duodenum

Two major hormones: insulin - from beta cells, and glucagon from alpha cells

11

Insulin

Pancreas
From beta cells
Target tissues: various cells/tissues throughout the body, general
Effect - lowers blood sugar - tells cells to absorb/uptake glucose from blood to cells
If used it's energy, if not it turns to fat
INTO THE CELLS

12

glucagon

Pancreas
From alpha cells
Target tissues- glycogen stored in liver/glucagon from pancreas
Effect- increases blood sugar (breaks down glycogen into glucose)

13

Insulin and glucagon are

Antagonists- do opposite things to glucose

Insulin lowers blood glucose

Glucagon increases blood glucose

14

Hormones versus enzymes

Hormones (endocrine) tell the body to break things down or to do things

Enzymes (exocrine) are the substance that break down substances

15

Diabetes

ALWAYS AN INSULIN ISSUE NOT GLUCAGON


Multiple types

16

Type 1 diabetes

No cure for (autoimmune), insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, usually appears in teenage years, more rare, more serious, cells are destroyed that handle this

17

Diabetes type 2

NIDDM (Non-insulin dependent DM)

Most common
Can become insulin dependent in later years if not regulated through diet and exercise
Used to be considered an adult onset, not any more
80% of diabetics are overweight

18

Diabetics massage considerations

Indicated as long as tissues are healthy and circulation unimpaired
Contraindicated - circulatory massage
In advanced stages or poorly managed cases
Numbness
Cardiovascular problems and or kidney failure