A&P 2.5 tendon reflex/dural folds Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 2.5 tendon reflex/dural folds Deck (28)
1

Pectoralis minor

A, I, O

A - depress the scapula, anterior tilt of scapula, abduction (protraction) of the scapula, downward rotation of the scapula

O - ribs 3-5 (anterior surface, near costal cartilage)

I - coracoid process of the scapula

Named for location and size

2

Subclavius


A, I, O

A- draws clavicle inferior and anterior, elevate the first rib, stabilize the sternoclavicular joint

O - first rib and cartilage

I - inferior to the surface of the lateral clavicle or arcominal end

Named for location

3

Reflex arc review

Stimulus, sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector, response

4

Stretch reflex

Review

SPINAL REFLEX

Stimulus (STRETCH of muscle), sensory receptor (muscle spindle), sensory neuron, integrating center (MONOSYNAPTIC), motor neuron (reciprocal innervation occurs concurrently)

- effector (agonist muscle, muscle stretched, "prime mover",ipsilateral), (antagonist, "prime stopper")

response (agonist contract) and (antagonist relax)

5

Golgi tendon organs

Thin capsule of connective tissue located at the muscle and tendon junction enclosing a few fascicles

Sensory nerve endings are going to penetrate the fibers measuring their length thus providing information on muscle tension

One every tendon for every skeletal muscle

6

Tendon reflex

AKA Golgi tendon reflex

Tendon reflexes decrease muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation


7 steps

7

Tendon reflex

Stimulus

Increased TENSION on a tendon

8

Tendon reflex

Sensory receptor

Golgi muscle tendon organ

9

Tendon reflex

Sensory neuron

To integrating center

10

Tendon reflex

Integrating center

Sensory neuron synapses with an INTERNEURON which synapses with a motor neuron

Sensory - integration - muscle goes to both antagonist & agonist

POLYSYNAPTIC

11

Tendon reflex

Motor neuron

Reciprocal innervation occurs concurrently

12

Tendon reflex

Effector

Antagonist

Agonist

13

Tendon reflex

Response

Antagonist - contracts

Agonist - relaxes

14

Golgi tendon reflex

Function of the tendon organ is like that of a muscle spindles and all proprioceptors is more about location in space than reflexive movement.

More so of tendon organs than muscle spindles because stretch reflexes are easier to elicit

Reflexes are the basic unit of neuromuscular function

All higher level integration involves sensory input from the same receptors.

15

Brain

4 major parts

Brain stem
Diencephalon
Cerebrum
Cerebellum

16

Brain stem

Continuous with spinal cord as it moves cephalically toward the foramen magnum

Contains ascending (dorsal) and descending (ventral) tracts going to and from the spinal cord

Center for cranial reflexes (both somatic=sensory/voluntary & autonomic=involuntary and subconscious )

Includes VITAL REFLEXES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR LIFE like breathing, heart rate, etc.

17

Diencephalon

Superior to the brain stem in the center of the cranium

Functions on the cusp between conscious and subconscious. Includes:

- EMOTION, SENSORY, RELAY, MEMORY

18

Cerebellum

Located behind the brain stem at the base of the back of the skull

Fine tunes motor activity by comparing motor intent with proprioceptive sensation

Divided into left and right hemispheres

THIS IS THE PART THAT IS AFFECTED BY ALCOHOL

19

Cerebrum

Large outer surrounding portion of the brain
Located just inside of the frontal, parietal, temporal bones and on top of the occipital bones

Function: CONSCIOUSNESS, VOLUNTARY ACTIVITY AND LANGUAGE

divided into left and right hemispheres

20

Meningeal folds

Review 3 meninges

AKA cranial meninges

Dura mater - durable mother on outside
Arachnoid - spider like in the center
Pia mater - soft mother on inside

Same in both brain and spinal cord

21

Meningeal folds

3

Divide the brain


Flax cerebri
Flax cerebelli
Tentorium cerebelli

22

Flax cerebri

Divides cerebrum left and right

23

Fax cerebelli

Divides cerebellum into left and right

24

Tentorium cerebelli

Divides the cerebellum from the cerebrum

25

Agonist

Defined

Prime mover

A muscle that contracts to cause an action

26

Antagonist

Defined

prime stopper

A muscle that has an action opposite that of the prime mover (agonist) and yeilds to the movement of the prime mover.

27

Tendon reflex

summary

Stimulus is tension

Response is relaxation

The antagonist contracts

28

Stretch reflex


Summary

The stimulus is stretch

The response is contraction

Antagonistic muscles relaxes