A&P 2.8. spinal versus cranial nerves Flashcards Preview

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Pathophysiological reflex

PAIN SPASM PAIN CYCLE

1

Stimulus

Pain from myofascia

2

Sensory receptor

Nocicepter

Free nerve ending sensitive to damage or potential damage

3

Sensory neuron

Conducts a nerve impulse from nocicepters to the CNS

4

Integrating center

Sensory neurons synapse with an INTERNEURON that synapses with a ....

5

Motor neuron

To the MUSCLE WITH THE RECEPTOR, while the antagonist is inhibited

6

Effector

Muscle in pain

7

Response

Muscle in pain contracts

8

Renewed stimulus

Repeated firing of the motor neuron and repeated contraction of the muscle use a lot of energy - more than normal- creating an energy crisis.

The muscle and the motor neuron secrete chemicals in response to the energy crisis that stimulate nocicepters

Go back to step 2 and REPEAT IN A VISCOUS CYCLE

9

Facilitation

Any neuronal pathway that is used repeatedly develops a lower threshold, and will fire more easily in the future

"Wearing a groove"

10

Spreading

Large amounts of nociceptive input to the spinal cord cause additional interneurons to fire, spreading the chronic contractions to other muscles

First in motor neurons in the same segment, then on the other side, then up and down the cord and eventually stimulating the reticular formation, increasing global muscle tone and spreading myofascial pain throughout larger body regions.

11

Spinal nerves

31 pairs of spinal nerves that are numbered not named according to t he level of the vertebral column at which they emerge from the spinal cavity.

Spinal nerves ARE ALWAYS MIXED (they have both sensory and motor axions)

12

Cervical nerve pairs

8 pairs
C1-C7 emerge superior to their respective vertebrae

C8 emerges between T1-C7 vertebrae

13

Thoracic nerve pairs

12 pairs

All emerge inferior to their respective vertebrae

14

Lumbar nerve pairs

5 pairs

L1-5. All emerge inferior to their respective vertebrae

15

Sacral nerve pairs

5 Pairs

S1-5 all emerge from foramina in the sacrum

A branch of each sacral nerve travels anterior lay into th e pelvis, while another branch travels posteriorly to the myofascia and skin over the sacrum

16

Coccygeal nerve pair

1 pair

Emerges between the sacrum and the coccyx

17

Cranial nerves

12 pairs identified by both ROMAN NUMERALS AND NAMES.

The numbers indicate the order in which they connect to the brain from anterior to posterior while the names suggest. Either their distribution or function. Like all peripheral nerves, cranial nerves are made up of bundles of axions, unlike other they connect to the under surface of the brain. Unlike spinal nerves, cranial nerves are either mixed, sensory or mostly motor. Mostly motor also contain proprioceptive fibers that carry information regarding muscle tension in the muscle controlled by the motor fibers of the same motor nerve.

18

Cranial nerves

I

I

Name: Olfactory

Class : sensory

Function: smell

19

Cranial nerves

II

II

Name: optic

Class: sensory

Function: vision

20

Cranial nerves

III

III

name: oculomotor

Class: mostly motor

Function: eye movement

21

Cranial nerves

IV

IV

Name : troclear

Class: mostly motor

Function: eye movement

22

Cranial nerves

VI

VI

Name: abducens

Class: mostly motor

Function: eye movement (abducts the eye)

23

Conus medullaris

CONE MIDDLE

The inferior end of the spinal cord (cone shaped) usually ends at L1, but can vary between T12 & L3

24

Film terminale

THREAD END

A connective tissue filament/cord arising from the end of the conus medullaris that attaches to the coccyx (a continuation of the dura)

25

Cauda equine

TAIL HORSE

The spinal column ends in the lumbar area and continues through the vertebral canal as spinal nerves.

These nerves send and receive messages to and from the lower limbs and pelvic organs.

Collection of nerves at the end of the spinal cord resembles a horse's tail and is called cauda equina.

26

Cranial nerves

Acromions

Names and functions

Oh once one takes the anatomy final very good vacations are heavenly - names


Some say marry money but my brother says bad business marry money - functions

27

Cranial nerve functions

3

Mostly motor
Sensory
Both

28

Coracobrachialis

A, I, O

A - adduction and flexion of the humerus

O - coracoid process of scapula

I - medial surface of the mid-humeral shaft

Named for attachments

29

Splenius capitis

A, I, O

A- bilateral: extension of head and neck
Unilateral : ipsilateral rotation and lateral flexion

O - lower portion of the nuchal ligament and spinous process of C7-T3

I - mastoid process of the superior nuchal line (lateral) of occipital bone

Second layer of posterior cervical muscles