A&P 3.11 respiratory system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.11 respiratory system Deck (21):
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Diaphragm


A, I, O

Origin: inner surface of lower 6 ribs, upper 2 or 3 lumbar vertebrae, inner aspect of xipoid process

Insertion: central tendon (penetrated by aorta, vena cava and esophagus

Action: inspiration - elevates and expands lower costal margin and lower ribs, depresses central tendon and the two muscle domes, increasing volume of the thoracic cavity during inhalation

1

Diaphragm penetrated by

Aorta
Vena cava
Esophagus

2

Serratus posterior

A, I, O

Medial attachment: superior - spinous process C6 or 7 to T1 or 2; inferior - spinous process of T 10, 11, or 12 to L1, 2

Lateral attachment: superior - lateral side of angles of ribs 2-5; inferior- lower border of ribs 9-12

Action - superior - raises 2-5th ribs to ASSIST inhalation; inferior - draws lower ribs back and down

3

Respiratory system

Functions

4

Exchange of gases (oxygen/carbon dioxide)
Assists in regulating Ph
Cleanse, warm, humidify inspired air
Smell, sound

4

Structures

Upper

Nose/nasal cavity
Pharynx (throat)
Epiglottis (prevent food/liquids from going into trachea)
Larynx/voice box - vocal cords

5

Respiratory structures

Lower

Trachea/windpipe
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli

6

Bronchi

Trachea divides into right primary bronchus and left primary bronchus

7

Alveoli

Grape shaped clusters inside the lungs where gas exchange occurs
Predominately SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

8

Alveolus

One cup shaped structure

9

Alveolar sac

Cluster of alveoli

10

Exchange of gases

Occurs between alveoli and capillaries by simple diffusion

11

respiratory membrane

4 layers

Extending from the alveolar air space to blood plasma the respiratory membrane consists of 4 layers

Alveolar wall
Epithelial basement membrane
Capillary basement layer
Endothelial cells

12

Lungs

General

2 lungs, one right and left separated into regions or lobes
Left- two lobes (heart takes up space)
Right - three lobes

Contained within serous membrane - pleural membrane

13

Pleural membrane

Two layers

Parietal layer - wall covering thoracic cavity
Visceral layer - covers organ (lung)

Pleural fluid in between layers

14

Pleurisy or pluritis

Inflammation of the membrane

15

Pneumonia

Infection or inflammation of the alveoli

16

Bronchitis

Inflammation of bronchi and increased secretions

17

Smoking

Constriction - decreased air flow- decreased hemoglobin - increased mucous - destroy cilia - destroy elastic fibers- drown in your own mucus

75% lung cancer caused by smoking

18

Asthma

Airway inflammation

19

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Multiple types of respiratory problems leading to chronic obstruction airway

20

Emphysema

Destruction of alveoli