A&P 3.14 digestive physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.14 digestive physiology Deck (48):
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Pronation teres

A, I, O

Origin: common flexor tendon (medial epicondyle of the humerus and coronoid process of ulna

Insertion: middle of lateral surface of radius

Action: pronate forearm, assists elbow flexion

MATCHED TO SUPINATOR IN SIZE AND OPPOSING ACTION

1

Pronator quadratus

Origin: medial, anterior distal 1/4th surface of the ulna

Insertion: lateral, anterior distal 1/4th of radius

Action: pronate forearm

2

Radioulnar joint

Between radius and ulna at the tuberosities

3

Medial to lateral forearm muscles

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi radialis
Pronation teres

4

Digestive process

Overview

Brings essential nutrients into the internal environment so they are available to every cell in the body

5

Ingestion

Liquids and food taken in
Eating

6

Secretion

Water, acids, buffers, enzymes
Assist in both chemical and physical digestion of food

7

Motility

Movement of the GI tract
Physically breaks down and moves contents

8

Digestion

Complex nutrients broken down into simpler nutrients

9

Absorption

Movement of nutrients through the GI mucosa into the internal environment

10

Elimination

Excretion of material not absorbed

11

Mechanical digestion

Mastication
Deglutition
Peristalsis
Segmentation

12

Mastication

Mixes food with saliva

13

Deglutition

Swallowing

14

Peristalsis

Wavelike ripples of the muscle layers

What moves the food downward

15

Segmentation

Mixing movements within digestive tract but more about mixing it up than moving

16

Chemical digestion

6 main types of chemical substances

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats (lipids)
Water
Vitamins
Minerals

17

Chemical substances that need chemical digestion prior to absorption

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats

18

Enzymes

Organic catalysts
Proteins that accelerate chemical reactions without showing up in the final product
Very specific in action - key-in-lock

19

Enzymes

3 types

Amalyse
Pro teases
Lipase a

20

Amylase

Breaks down carbohydrates to glucose
Found in saliva, pancreatic juice and lining of small intestine

21

Proteases

Break down proteins to amino acids
Found in gastric juices, pancreatic juice and lining of small intestine

22

Lipases

Break down lipids to fatty acids and glycerol
Pancreatic juice

23

Digestive secretion

Release of various substances from exocrine glands

Includes: saliva, gastric juice, bile and intestinal juice

24

Control of digestive gland secretion

When food is seen, smelled, thought or heard
The brain activates digestive secretion in the mouth and stomach
Food itself in the stomach and small intestines activate other secretory pathways

25

Absorption

Passage of substances through the intestinal mucosa into the blood and lymph
Fats pass into the lymphatic system and are absorbed, all other nutrients are absorbed by cardiovascular capillaries

26

Elimination

Expulsion of the residue of digestion
Feces

27

Defication

The process of removing feces

28

Gastroenteritis

Umbrella term for stomach and GI inflammation

29

Anorexia

Having to appetite
Versus anorexia nervosa - mental issues with weight control

30

Nausea

Non-specific symptom of uneasiness in the stomach

31

Emisis

Vomiting

32

Diarrhea

Having loose or liquid bowel movements
More then 3 per day

33

Constipation

Infrequent or hard to pass bowel movements

34

Ulcer

H pylori
Bacterial
Loss of the lining, an open wound

35

Stomach cancer

Gastric cancer

36

Diverticulosis

Out poaching of the intestional wall

37

Colitis

Inflammation of the colon

38

Malabsorption

Inability to absorb nutrients

39

IBS

Irritable bowel disease

Umbrella term for irritable bowel movement

40

Hepatitis

A, b, c, d, e

Viral, either fecal, oral, blood born

41

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

42

Celiac

Can't digest gluten
Constipation or diarrhea

43

Crohns

Auto-immune

44

Bolus

Ball of food and saliva

45

Chyme

Bonus with gastric juices

Transitions from bolus to chyme at the stomach

46

Feces

Solid waste

Transition from chyme to feces at large intestine

47

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