A&P 3.17 reproduction and development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.17 reproduction and development Deck (25):
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Anterior compartment

Tibialis anterior
Extensor hallicis longus
Extensor digitorum longus
PERONEUS tertius

1

Lateral compartment

PERONEUS longus

2

posterior compartment

Gastrocnemius
Soleus

3

Deep posterior compartment

Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Tibialis posterior

4

Flexor digitorum longus

A, I ,O

Origin: middle 1/3 posterior tibia

Insertion: by 4 tendons to base of distal phalanges toes 2-5

Action: flexes toes 2-5, assists plantar flexion and inversion

5

Flexor hallicis longus

A, I, O

Origin: lower 2/3 posterior fibula

Insertion: distal phalanx, great toe

Action: flexes great toe, assists plantarflexion and inversion
HALLUCIS STARTS MOST LATERAL AND ENDS UP MOST MEDIAL

6

Tibialis posterior

A, I, O

Origin: interosseous membrane and inner border of fibula and fibula

Insertion: most of the tarsals ( NOT CALCANEUS, TALUS OR MIDDLE/INTERMEDIATE CUNEIFORM) and the 3rd and 4th metatarsals

Action: plantarflexion, inversion

7

Essential organs

Male & female

Gonads

Male - testes
Female - ovaries

Gametes

Male- sperm
Female - egg (oocytes)

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Accessory organs

Male
Female

Males - penis, vas deferense (ductus deferens), prostate, epididymis

Female - vagina, uterus, cervix, Fallopian tubes (uterine tubes)

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Reproductive system functions

3

Gonads produce gametes that unite to form new organisms
Gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes
Associated organs transport and store gametes (hold on to new organism)

10

Spermatozoa

250-500 million into the vagina
+\- 2 million to the cervix
50-100 reach the egg
Sperm live for about 72 hours

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Egg

Oocytes
Goes from ovary to Fallopian tube to uterus
Most fertilization takes place in the Fallopian tube
Egg lives for 24 hours or less

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One sperm / one egg

23 chromosomes on each
23 pairs total
46 chromosomes total

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Zygote

Single cell created from the union of the male and female gamete and is genetically complete

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Cleavage and implantation

Cleave - divide
Zygote divides (cleaves) 1 cell into a
Morula at 3 days then becomes a
Blastocyst - hollow ball of cells - 5 days
Implantation into wall of the uterus within 10 days
Inner cell mass - structure with 2 cavities - one becomes embryo and other becomes the placenta

15

Fertilization to implantation

1-3 days - zygote
3 days - morula
5 days - blastocyst
6-10 days - implantation

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Periods of development

Embryo - first 8 weeks after fertilization
Fetus - week 8 through delivery (37-40 weeks)
3 trimesters

1 - last menstrual period through 12 weeks
2 - 13 to 25 weeks
3 - 26 weeks to birth

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Primary germ layers

Endoderm
Ectoderm
Mesoderm

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Endoderm

Creates linings
Respiratory & GI tract
Creates glands, pancreatic ducts, glandular epithelium

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Mesoderm

Creates dermis, skeletal muscle, bones, kidneys

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Ectoderm

Creates peripheral tissue
Epidermis, tooth enamel
Creates nerve tissue - brain and spinal cord

21

Twins

3 types

Identical
Conjoined
Fraternal

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Identical twins

1 egg, 1 sperm
Separation into 2 embryos, shared placenta

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Conjoined twins

1 egg, 1 sperm
Late separation after 8 days (share organs, limbs, etc.)

24

Fraternal twins

2 eggs, 2 sperm
Siblings sharing the space, separate placenta