A&P 3.4 Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

A&P 3 > A&P 3.4 Blood Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 3.4 Blood Vessels Deck (31):
1

Pectineus

A, I, O

ORIGION : crest and superior RAMUS of the pubis

Insertion: pectineal line of femur - between lesser trochanter and linea aspera

Action: adducts and assists in flexion of the femur

1

CM Joint And MP joint look at

.

2

Thenar muscles

3 muscles around ball of thumb

Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis
Opponents pollicis

3

Thenar eminence

Palm projection below thumb

4

Thenar muscles

O, I, A

Origin: scaphoid, trapezium and flexor retinaculum

Insert: flexor/abductor : lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of the thumb
Opponens: lateral side of the 1st metacarpal

5

Thenar muscles

Action

Abductor pollicis brevis: abducts joint at MP joint

Flexor pollicis brevis: flexes thumb at MP joint

Opponens pollicis: opposition of thumb at CM joint

6

5 main types of blood vessels

Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins

7

Arteries

Carry blood away from heart

Elastic arteries- more elastic fibers, help propel blood onward while ventricles relax
Muscular arteries- adjust rate of blood flow

8

Arterioles

Smallest arteries - provide resistance

9

Capillaries

Tiny blood vessels connect arterioles to venues-thin walls that allow exchange of nutrients and wastes

10

Venules

Little veins
Collect blood from capillaries and drains into veins

11

Veins

Carry blood back to heart from tissues

12

Vessel layers

3

Tunica intima (interna)
Tunica media
Tunica adventia (externa)

13

Tunica intima

Innermost layer closest lumen
In arteries endothelium provides smooth lining
IN VEINS ENDOTHELIUM ALSO FORMS SEMILUNAR VALVES (one way blood flow)

14

Tunica media

Middle layer
Thickest
Smooth muscle tissue sandwiched with a layer of elastic connective tissue

15

Tunica adventia

Outer layer
Strong, flexible fibrous connective tissues

16

Arterioles and venules have

3 modified layers

17

Capillaries have

One thin coat of endothelium

18

Special vessels

Vasa vasorum
Varicose veins
Anastomosis

19

Vasa vasorum

Vessels of vessels
Found in large arteries and veins such as aorta and its branches
Provide blood supply and nutrient for tunica adventitia and outer parts of tunica media of large vessels

20

Varicose veins

Leaking valves back flow of blood
Dilated and twisted

21

Anastomosis

Union of two or more vessels
Provide alternative routes for blood to reach a tissue or organ in case of damage called collateral circulation

22

Primary exchange vessels are

Capillaries

Blood flows at slowest rate in the capillaries

23

Venus return

3

Heart - pressure from contractions of left ventricle
Skeletal muscle pump- contraction of leg muscles "milking" the blood upward by compression
Respiratory pump- compression of abdominal veins during breathing

24

Capillary exchange

3 types

Diffusion
Pinocytosis
Bulk flow

25

Diffusion

Water - osmosis
Many substances, oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose

26

Pinocytosis

Large lipid
Insoluble molecules

27

Bulk flow

Large amounts of a fluid moving together
Regulation of blood and interstitial fluid via the kidneys

28

Major blood vessels

Arteries

Ascending aorta - two coronary artery branches
Arch of the aorta - 3 branches -brachiocephalic trunk ( right subclavian and right carotid), left carotid, left subclavian
Descending aorta - thoracic and abdominal aorta
Arteries of the head and neck - carotid artery
Arteries of the extremities and trunk - subclavian artery upper extremity, iliac artery lower extremity

29

Major blood vessels

Veins

Veins of head and neck- jugular vein
Veins of upper extremities - subclavian vein
Veins of the thorax - iliac vein
Veins of the abdomen - anterior vena cava or abdominal vena cava

30

Hepatic portal circulation

Veins of the lower extremity
Sapphenous vein - longest vein in the body
Often used for surgical proceedures