A&P 3.7 Red Blood Cells Flashcards Preview

A&P 3 > A&P 3.7 Red Blood Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 3.7 Red Blood Cells Deck (30):
1

Popliteus

A, O, I

Origin: lateral condyle of the femur

Insertion: posterior proximal tibia - above soleal line

Action: unlocks knee to permit flexion

2

Deepest muscle of the posterior knee

Popliteus

3

Plantaris

A, I, o

Sole of the foot

Origin: lateral super condylar ridge of the femur

Insertion: via a long tendon that attaches to the medial Achilles' tendon and deep fascia of the ankle

Action: assists in plantar flexion of ankle

Runs oblique from lateral to medial

4

Longest tendon in the body

Plantaris

Short muscle belly but longest tendon in the body

5

Blood fluid

Whole blood

55% plasma - matrix
45% formed elements - red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

Men have 5-6 liters
Women have 4-5 liters

6

Blood formed elements include

Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets

7

Functions of blood

Transportation - of carbon dioxide, hormones, nutrients and waste by PLASMA, OXYGEN BY RED BLOOD CELLS

Regulation- homeostasis- water balance of all cells and temperature regulation

Protection - blood clotting by platelets, defense by white blood cells

8

Blood plasma

Contents

Makes up 55% of whole blood
It is a matrix of connective tissue
91% is water
9% is solutes

9

Solutes

Particles dissolved or suspended in water

10

Formed elements

3

Red blood cells - erythrocytes - whole cells, no nucleus

White blood cells - Leukocytes - whole cells with a nucleus

Platelets - thrombocytes - cell fragments, no nucleus

99% of formed elements are red blood cells

11

Hematocrit

Is the volume percentage of red blood cells

Average for men is 45%, women is 42 %

12

Amenia

Defined

Conditions that result in decreased red blood cells are called anemia

Characterized by a decreased hematocrit value

Adults with less than 10 grams of hemoglobin per 100ml of blood is diagnosed as having anemia

13

Hematopoiesis

Defined

The process of creating formed elements that occur in red bone marrow

Caused by pluripotent stem cells

Also known as hemopoiesis.

14

Formed elements come from

Pluripotent stem cells

15

Red blood cells

General

Live about 120 days
Hemoglobin is primary component
Main job is to carry oxygen through the body due to binding of hemoglobin with oxygen
Biconcave - loses it's nucleus and caves in the middle
Most numerous of formed elements - 99%

16

Hemoglobin

Pigment that causes blood to appear red

17

Biconcave

Red blood cell loses it's nucleus and caves in the middle

18

Hematopoesis

Another name for hemopoiesis

19

Hemoglobin

Within each red blood cell are 200-300 million molecules of hemoglobin
One hemoglobin molecule contains four iron (Fe) atoms
Anemias are classified according to she size and hemoglobin content of red blood cells
An adult with less than 10g of hemoglobin per 100ml of blood is diagnosed as having anemia

20

Destruction of red blood cells

Often break apart or fragment in the capillaries as they age
Macrophage cells (type of white blood cell) in the lining of the vessels, liver and spleen phagocytose (ingest and destroy) the aged, abnormal or fragmented red blood cells
Leading to the breakdown of hemoglobin with a release of amino acids, iron and the pigment bilirubin

21

Macrophage

Type of white blood cell

22

Phagocytose

Ingestion and destruction of cells

23

Breakdown of hemoglobin releases

Amino acids
Iron
Pigment bilirubin

24

Red blood destruction becomes

3 things

EXTRA?

Glubin - amino acids
Heme - becomes iron and transferrin
Biliverdin

25

Destruction of red blood cells continued

Iron is returned to bone marrow for synthesis of new hemoglobin and bilirubin is transported to the liver then excreted into the intestines as part of bile

Amino acids that are released are used by the body for energy or synthesis of new proteins

26

Blood disorders

Polycythemia
Anemia

27

Polycythemia

Too many red blood cells
Blood is thick and cannot flow well

28

Anemia

Shortage of red blood cells, hemoglobin or both
Pallor, shortness of breath, fatigue, poor resistance to cold
Idiopathic anemia or nutritional deficiency anemia are ok to massage
Bone marrow suppression (cancer), chronic disease/inflammation, or premature red blood cells destruction -- rigorous massage may be contraindicated
Energy work more appropriate

29

Massage contraindicated anemias

Aplastic anemia - destruction of red blood cells - contraindicated
Acute blood loss anemia
Hemolytic anemia (breakage)
- sickle cell - African/Latino
- thalassemia - Mediterranean

30

Anemia ok to massage

Iron deficiency anemia
Pernicious anemia - vitamin B12 not absorbed