A&P 3.9 WBC & Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P 3.9 WBC & Immunity Deck (33):
1

Peroneal muscles also known as

Fibularis

2

PERONEUS brevis

A, I ,O

Origin: distal 2/3 lateral fibula

Insertion: base of the 5th metatarsal

Action: plantar-flexion and eversion of foot

COULD BE FIBULARIS PERONEUS BREVIS

3

PERONEUS longus

A, I, O

Origin: proximal 2/3 lateral fibula and head of the fibula

Insertion: base of the first metatarsal and medial cuniform

Action: plantar-flexion and eversion of foot

4

Whole blood

55% plasma - 91% water, 8% proteins, 1% solutes and waste
45% formed elements - 99% RBC, 1% WBC and platelets

5

Platelets

Thrombo - clot, cytes - cell
Fragments of MEGAKAROCYTEs
Normal value of 250,000/ ml blood
Live 5-9 days
Function to form platelet plugs

6

Hemostasis

The sequence of events that stops bleeding
1- vascular spasm - vasoconstriction
2- platelet plug
3- coagulation-clotting

Clotting is the interweaving of the fibrin threads from plasma

7

Clotting pathologies

BODYWORK CONTRAINDICATED MOST OF THE TIME

Thrombus - stationary clot
Embolus - floating debris (clot, fat air bubble)
- venous- pulmonary embolism
- arterial - coronary embolism/ TIA / renal infarct
Hemophilia - lack of clotting factor

8

TIA

Transient ischemia attack

9

Red blood pathologies

Anemias
Polycythemia (too many RBC)
Sickle cell/thalassemia
Hemorgic (blood loss)
Aplastic
Pernicious (vitamin B12 not absorbed)

10

White blood cells

Leukocytes

1 WBC for every 700 RBC

5 types classified according to the presence or absence of granules and staining classification of their cytoplasm

11

Granular WBC

3

Visible granules (rough edges) under a microscope
Named based on response to color dyes

Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

12

Basophils

Granules dye bluish purple with basic dyes
Intensify ALLERGIC REACTION
release HISTAMINE
less than 1% of circulating WBCS

13

Eosinophils

Granular dye reddish orange with acidic dyes
COMBAT ALLERGIC REACTION
Release ANTI-HISTAMINES
2-4% of circulating WBCs

14

Neutrophils

Fairly neutral to dyes
Perform PHAGOCYTOSIS
60-70% circulating WBCs
FASTEST RESPONSE OF ALL WBC'S TO BACTERIA

15

Agrandular WBC

2

Granules not visible under a microscope

Lymphocytes (lymphatic system)
Monocytes

16

Lymphocytes

3 types

Lymphatic system
T cells, B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells)
20-25% of circulating WBC's

17

Monocytes

Called monocytes while in blood stream
Become macrophages once they leave blood and move to tissues
Largest WBC
3-8% of circulating WBC's
Doesn't stay in blood long

18

Macrophages

Monocytes that leave the blood and move to tissues

19

White blood function

Phagocytosis(as a fixed or wondering macrophage)
they destroy microbes and clean up dead tissues following an infection

20

Normal values

A cubic mm of normal blood contains 5-9,000 leukocytes with different percentages of each type
Change in the number of a specific leukocyte as well as overall leukocyte count has clinical significance

21

Immunity
2 types

Non-specific resistance
Specific immunity

22

Non-specific resistance

Innate- born with it
Does not have to do with lymphatic system
No specific target generalized reactions
Found primarily in skin and membranes
Includes reactions such as vomiting, inflammation and fever

23

Specific immunity

Adaptive for a specific pathogen

24

Antigens

Foreign substances that trigger an immune response

Includes pathogens which cause a disease

25

B cells

Destroy bacteria and toxins
Turn into plasma cells that produce antibodies

26

T cells

Attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells and some bacteria

27

2 types of cell response

Cell mediated
Antibody mediated

28

Cell mediated

T cells

CELLS DIRECTLY ATTACK THE INVADING ANTIGEN

29

Antibody mediated

B cells stay put and send out antibodies
Antibodies neutralize, immobilize, agglutinate and flag antigens

30

White blood pathologies

Leukemia - out of control leukocytes
Cancer of the WBC's

31

Disorders of the immune system

Autoimmune disease- when the body attacks and destroys its own tissues

Lupis, multiple schlerosis, Graves' disease, rheumatoid arthritis

Allergies - over reaction/hypersensitivity to a foreign substance

32

Describe blood cell formation

Hematopoietic stem cells produce white and red blood cells and lymphocyte cells (T, B, and NK cells)
Platelets come from megakeryocytes

33

Role of lymphatic tissue to mature agranulocytes

B cells are formed mature
T cells go to thymus to mature
NK cells are formed mature