Functions of management include:
____ and ____
Control and Evaluate
______ is the basic function of management; everything else depends on this.
_____ ______ or operational planning covers period of 1 year; Usually the operating budget.
Short range or operational planning
______ _____ planning covers up to a 5 year cycle. Focuses on goals and objectives. Requires a mission statement of _____ _____ vision.
Long range planning
Long range vision
This type of planning concentrates on decisions, not plans. Uses SWOT analysis - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats.
In disaster planning, __ gallon of water/person/day for minimum of 3 days is appropriate.
Shows how employee fits into organization; relationship of positions and function.
Solid line depicts line of authority.
Dotted line depicts advisory positions.
-_______ (advisory): advise and support the line, but not involved in day to day operations.
–_______: serves as both line and ______ (advisory).
_____________ or circular model of organization improves representation of dynamics of personnel relationships because functions are centered AROUND individuals, not above and below them.
Eliminates above and below concepts. Presents an organization without loose ends.
Determining staff needs-
______ ______/______ ______ reflects average staffing needs.
Meals served/Labor hours
*_________ _________ is a MEASURE OF PRODUCTIVITY defined as the amount of all food sales divided by the average cost of a typical meal.
Food sales/Meal cost
________ _ _ _: Minimum number of employees needed to staff the facility; COUNTS PRODUCTIVE HOURS (hours actually worked)
__________ _ _ _: Productive hours PLUS benefit days and days off (adjusted to other things).
Approximately _____ employees are necessary for everyday coverage of full-time positions.
Approximately 1.55 employees are necessary for everyday coverage of full-time positions.
FTE usually available 236 d/year b/c of days off and benefit days (129 d)
There are _____ labor hours in a year.
2,080 labor hours/year
_________: the distribution of work to qualified people
For operation to succeed, duties should be delegated to the _________ competent level on the team.
Manager must have clear understand of what they want done - give specific instructions, motivate, train
Manager leads organization so objectives are achieved.
A barrier to effective delegation is the manager’s ____________. Feel they can do it better themselves, be too disorganized to plan ahead, lack confidence in subordinates.
______ is the transmission and receiving of information. __________ (response) tells you whether or not the correct message has been received. Barriers include low voice, illegible handwriting, alternative word meanings.
Listening skills are essential.
Organizational communication channels-
___________-from head down through workers
___________-from workers up to head; opportunity for employees to have say in operation. Management receives vital information from lower levels.
___________-Between departments. ie. nutrition and nursing, food service and production
___________-Between functions diagonally placed. ie. ordering clerk in foodservice sends request directly to purchasing department rather than go through foodservice channels
___________-grapevine; satisfies social needs
The most widely quoted theory of motivation. Characterized by basic needs (________ and ________), followed by higher needs or motivators (_______, ______, _______).
When the basic needs are met, the higher needs become motivators.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Basic needs-physiological, security
Motivators-social, self-esteem, self-realization
Herzberg’s two-factor theory is based on ______ _______ and _______.
Maintenance factors and motivators
In Herzberg’s two-factor theory, maintenance factors (satisfiers and dissatisfiers) are similar to _______ ______ _____. Do not produce motivation, but can prevent motivation from occurring.
Satisfiers are perceived as good if present, but dissatisfiers if lacking - will interfere with work.
Maslow’s basic needs
The need to achieve, the need for power, and the need for affiliation.
Achieve-desire to do something better/more efficiently
Affiliation-desire to be liked by others
MacGregor believes the attitude of the _______ toward ______ impacts job performance. Based on two theories, ________ _, and _______ _.
Attitude of the manager towards the employees impacts performance.
Negative and autocratic theory of motivation. Says people inherently dislike work and will avoid it if possible. Controls employees through fear and pressure.
Positive and participative theory of motivation. Says work is as natural as play or rest. Management should arrange work so that employees can be self-directed in achieving goals,
________ _______ Looks at SMALLEST parts of job (hand movements, steps taken), to eliminate unecessary parts of a job.
Examples of work simplification procedures-
- ______ economy: reduce motions and time required
- Work ________: observe random samples to determine amount of time _____ or _____.
- Pathway chart/flow diagram: shows path of the worker during a process
- Operation chart: movement of hands
- Process chart: steps involved in a process using symbols
- Cross chart: efficiency of equipment placement; # of movements between pieces of equipment
______ is the efficiency a service converts into inputs and outputs. Expressed as a ratio. Input to output (ie. trays/min, meals/hour).
To increase productivity, increase output or decrease input.
_____ schedule: serves as overall plan. Basis for developing weekly schedules.
_____ schedule: staffing patterns for a particular operation (ie. trayline). Positions, hours worked, relief assignments
______ schedule: time sequencing of events required to produce a meal; what to do when.
Motivational theory characterized by productivity due to special attention.
Special attention & Involvement in the process–>Improved behavior and increased productivity
Motivational theory characterized by the belief that rewards serve as motivators only under certain circumstances –> if workers believe performance leads to reward, and that reward is attractive.
Motivational theory based on the expectancy theory. Addresses leaders effect on worker performance. Increased performance by increased motivation by leader.
Leadership styles in ______ order of control
- Free rein (laissez-faire)
Highest degree of control. Demands obedience.
Asks for input, but makes final decision alone
Follows procedures to the tee at expense of efficiency or common sense
Emerging trend in management. Encourages workers to participate in decision-making. Uses quality circles, or small groups of employees, who meet regularly to identify and solve problems.
Lowest degree of control.
Free rein (Laissez-faire)*
*As a leader, you need to be ________ in times of crisis when decisions need to be made quickly, but _________ the remainder of the time. Share power with employees.
The _____ ______ is a device for analyzing managerial style. Plots leaders concern for employees vs. concern for production.
______ ______ ______: employee-centered; High concern for people, low for production
Country club management*
_______ _______: High concern for both people and production
_________ ______: Low concern for either people or production
________, ________: High concern for production, low for people. Autocratic
______-__-__-____ management: Average concern for people and production.
Likert classified management as either ____-______ or _____ _____.
Likert classified management as either job-centered or employee-centered.
*Likerts’ research found that _______ leadership encouraged the most productive groups.
The _______ _______ is the principle that in a hierarchy, people are promoted until they reach a job level where they are no longer competent.
The ______ approach to management is a formal structure that focuses on tasks, structure, and authority.
The _____ principle of traditional management shows authority flowing in a direct vertical line from highest to lowest levels. Each person is accountable to only ONE superior in the unity of command.
Criticized for being too job-focused and impersonal.
Management approach that compensates for the impersonal traditional approach.
Employees participation in decision-making is essential and improves morale and productivity.
Human relations (behavioral) theory
Theory __: the value of the company is the people. Employees are GREATEST ASSETS.
Everyone who is affected by decision is involved in the making of that decision.
Management approach characterized by a system of an organized whole composed of interdependent parts.
Two parts of theory:
-OPEN SYSTEM of interaction with external factors and the environment.
-Impact of change of one part affects other parts.
Management approach that responds to the external environment. Recognizes that different methods are useful in different situations. Must identify what works in a particular situation at a particular time.
Contingency or situational leadership
Management approach that is WORK-centered. Work is extremely structured, and employees are expected to work as hard and as fast as possible.
*Focuses on physical aspects of the job, NOT HUMAN ASPECTS.
Management approach in which the leader establishes performance goals WITH employees, giving higher incentive value. Participative.
*Type of DEMOCRATIC management that provides control from within organization.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
________ and ________ leadership is based on how leaders and followers influence each other. (reciprocals)
Transactional and transformational leadership
_________ leadership is a bargaining relationship. Uses rewards and punishments to achieve goals. Leader tells employee what to do to receive reward, and takes corrective action only when employee fails to meet performance goals. Not bound together in pursuit of common goals.
_________ leadership is characterized by leaders empowering employees and inspiring them t be motivated towards common organizational goals, not personal gain. Followers are able to become leaders. Leads to increased morale, team spirit, lower labor turnover.
Management approach where managers serve as the catalyst for change. Leader must recognize need for change, help followers recognize need, then the change is brought about together. For a leader to make a successful change, the team must be in agreement.
Organizational change theory
______ and ______ is another function of management. It is an on-going process of measuring present performance against standard performance.
Controlling and evaluating
*The first step in the control/evaluation process is to _____ _______ against which performance will be measured.
*The first step in control/evaluation is to SET STANDARDS against which performance will be measured.
Steps in Control/Evaluation
- Establish standards
- ________ performance
- ________ to standards
- take ______ ______
- Establish standards
- Measure performance
- Compare to standards
- Take corrective action
_________ skills: understanding and proficiency in specific activity
Most important at lower levels of management (ie. trayline supervisor, kitchen manager)
_________ skills: ability to work effectively as a group member
Important at ALL levels, but imperative at lower levels of management.
_________ skills: Ability to see organization as a whole
Of increasing importance with higher rankings of management.
*The first step in the problem-solving process is to _____, ______, and _____ the problem.
*The first step in the problem-solving process is to assess, recognize, and analyze the problem.
A problem-solving technique that is a modification of brainstorming. Brainstorming is chaotic, this technique is structured and controlled. Participants generate ideas and share with the group in order while the leader records. Ideas are then ranked in priority order, and voted on for a final decision.
Nominal group technique
A problem-solving technique designed to probe expert minds in a series of written interviews from which a consensus is sought. Differs in that participants do not meet.
Problem-solving technique that focuses on different causes of a problem and categorizes related factors to better observe their influence. Increases workers involvement in decision-making. What are the CAUSES of the EFFECTS you are seeking? This is a diagram with arrows.
Cause and effect (fish) diagram
Chart (bar chart) that illustrates the importance of problems. Work on the TALLEST bar FIRST, which is the problem that occurs most frequently. Correcting the vital few problems will have the greatest impact on quality.
This theory develops the relationships involved in waiting in line and is used in analyzing the flow of customers in a cafeteria. Cost of waiting in line vs. Cost of prevention of waiting in line.
Que - queuing theory
This method of conflict resolution is characterized by REPRESSING conflict rather than settling it. Creates a win-lose situation.
Forcing, smoothing (talk one side into giving in), avoidance, or majority vote.
Dominance and Suppression
Method of conflict resolution in which managers attempt to resolve conflict by finding middle ground. May be a weak method - does not usually lead to a solution that can best help organization; solution reached is simply one that both parties can live with.
Method of conflict resolution in which conflict is converted into a joint problem-solving situation. All parties openly find a solution they can all accept.
Action that will cause a change in behavior/attitude of another.
Ability to exert influence.
Types of Power-
_____ power: ability to reward another for carrying out a task
_____ power: ability to punish for not carrying out a task; negative side of reward power
______ (legitimate) power: subordinate acknowledges influencers power due to position or job title
______ power: belief that influencer has expertise that subordinate does not
_____ power: based on desire to identify with the influencer (personality, charisma)
Reward power: ability to reward another for carrying out a task
Coercive power: ability to punish for not carrying out a task; negative side of reward power
Position (legitimate) power: subordinate acknowledges influencers power due to position or job title
Expert power: belief that influencer has expertise that subordinate does not
Referent power: based on desire to identify with the influencer (personality, charisma)
**Management should be ________, ________, and _______-_____. Explain organizations value system to employees, so that they understand why they are being asked to precede in a certain way.
**Management should be HANDS ON, PARTICIPATIVE AND VALUE-DRIVEN. Explain organizations value system to employees, so that they understand why they are being asked to precede in a certain way.
Distinguishing attributes of a successful manager-
- Have a ___ for ___ - FIX IT, DO IT, SOLVE IT
- Be close to/____ the customer-learn from them
- Be a _____ _____ (autonomy)
- _________ through _______-treat employees with respect and dignity
- Hands on, participative, value-driven
- Have a BIAS FOR ACTION
- VALUE THE CUSTOMER, strong relations with
- Be a RISK TAKER
- PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH PEOPLE (employees)
- HANDS ON, PARTICIPATIVE, VALUE-DRIVEN
ADA developed tools for credentialed dietetics practitioners to use in professional development (self-evaluation and skills needed to advance).
They are not regulations, but may be used to determine competency.
To help an RD assess whether they have the competency, knowledge, and skills needed to provide appropriate care.
Standards of Practice (SOP)
Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP)
Describes a competent level of nutrition care practice as shown by the NCP.
ie. diabetes care, oncology, nutrition support, nephrology, pediatrics
Standards of Practice (SOP)
Describes a competent level of behavior in the professional role.
6 domains of professionalism- Provision of Services Application of Research Communication and Application of Knowledge Utilization and Management of Resources Quality in Practice Competency and Accountability
Standards of Professional Practice (SOPP)
The __________ branch of government may introduce and enact a law. Can also override a veto by the executive branch. Congress, senators, and representatives make up this branch.
The ________ branch may either veto legislation or sign it into law. This branch includes the President.
The ________ branch may discard a law if it is determined to be violate basic rights and freedoms.
**Nutritionists can present views on a new bill at a ______ _______ scheduled by a committee or at _______ _______ _______ before the bill has reached legislation.
**Nutritionists can present views on a new bill at a PUBLIC HEARING scheduled by a committee or at early planning stages before the bill has reached legislation.
**If the House and the Senate offer different versions of a bill (don’t agree on it), it goes before a ______ _____ ________ where differences are resolved.
**If the House and the Senate offer different versions of a bill (don’t agree on it), it goes before a JOINT CONFERENCE COMMITTEE where differences are resolved.
**An __________ bill attaches funding to legislation.
**An APPROPRIATIONS bill attaches funding to legislation.
The last step in the legislative process is to formulate _________. A ______ interprets the law. It carries the fprce of a law, but is easier to change.
**Regulations are written by _____ _____ of the agencies charged with enforcing the regulation. ie. FDA
Staff members of agencies charged with enforcing the regulation
This enforcement agency enforces in-truth-labeling, and regulates content of food advertisements.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
This enforcement agency regulates the nutrient composition section of the food label, and ensures the safety of food products.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
This enforcement agency licenses radio and television.
Federal Communications Commission (FTC)
*A _______ _______ provides notices of public hearings, agency decisions, and proposed and final rules. Also lists changes in USDA food programs. Useful resource for public health nutritionists.
Public health nutritionists are often asked to serve as an ______ for a particular position or cause. For this reason, they must know arguments FOR and AGAINST the issue.
________: aggressive form of action; plead cause of a group
_______: activities aimed at influencing public officials and legislators