A L1.1 Risk factors for coronary diseases Flashcards Preview

Cardio Phys > A L1.1 Risk factors for coronary diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in A L1.1 Risk factors for coronary diseases Deck (14):
1

ESTABLISHED CHD factors

*Reversing these factors will help with CHD*

  • Age (most important factor)
    • 80% CHD occurs in people > 65yo
    • Exponential ↑ in risk with age (due to wear and tear of heart)
  • Cholesterol
  • BP
  • BMI
  • Smoking, Diabetes

2

Percentage of people dying from CHD?

40%

3

POSSIBLE CHD factors

*reversing these may not help with CHD*

  • L. ventricular size (2nd most important factor)
    • Reflects BP, diabetes…
  • Fibrinogen (clotting factor)
  • Other lipids
  • Homocysteine

4

Weight gain

  • Promotes major CHD traits

5

Gender

  • Males > Females risks
    • Females 'protected' before menopause, risk ↑ after menopause but men's risks are still higher
    • Hormone therapy in menopause DOES NOT reduce CHD
      • Actually promotes risk of other things (i.e breast cancer…)

6

Family history (genetics)

  • CHD in 1st degree relative, ↑ risk 4x
  • Env ≥ genes (in terms of importance)
    • e.g. IRS-1 gene
      • Insulin resistant gene → related to hypertension, high TAG

7

Lipids

  • vLDL, LDL, HDL (which is associated with exercise & a little alcohol → ↓CHD factors)

8

Stress

  • Unproven; Hard to measure

9

Alcohol

  • 2 Units of alcohol = ideal

10

Graded risk effect

  • There is a graded risk for CHD where every factor is additive to the risk
    • Relative risk: Relative to the general population: Graph is skewed to the right
    • Absolute risk: Multiplies by population: Normal distribution graph (bell curve)

11

Socio-economic

  • CHD is ↑ in developing countries;
  • ↑ in central & eastern Europe
  • ↓ in North America, Australasia, Japan
    • ↓ CHD is however opposed by ageing population

12

Wealth

  • Low wealth: ↑ disease → poor life expectancy
  • High wealth: Different problems (CVD & Cancer) → usually better life expectancy (adequate nutrition)

13

Japanese paradox

  • Low medical consumers (not relying on medical tech), 2/3 men smoke → still lowest in CHD
  • Have good nutrition diet, ↓25% fat content in food

14

French paradox

  • French smoke & have high fat diet but 2nd lowest CHD
  • Red wine → may be beneficial for CHD