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Flashcards in AALAS & CITI Questions Deck (222)
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1

CFA is...

Complete Freund's (oil, water & killed tuberculosis) - can only be used once

2

IFA is...

Incomplete Freund's (oil and water) - can be used multiple times

3

USDA pain code for CFA is...

D - more than momentary pain

4

Recommended injection route for antibody production is...

subcutaneous

5

Polyclonal antibody production is taken from...

Blood serum

6

Monoclonal antibody production is taken from...

Speen and lymph nodes

7

What component of CFA is missing from IFA?

Killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis

8

Why is CFA a health hazard to humans?

t can cause severe inflammation upon repeat exposure.

9

A simple rule to prevent excess blood collection in an animal is to collect no more than what percentage of body weight as blood at one time?

1%

10

Which of the statements concerning blood collection in mice and rats is true?
A) Retroorbital bleeding should be performed on conscious animals to maintain adequate blood pressure.
B) Retroorbital bleeding should be performed on conscious animals to maintain adequate blood pressure.
C) Less painful alternatives to retroorbital blood collection include lateral saphenous, facial (submandibular) and jugular vein blood collection.
D) No more than about 10% of the body weight should be removed as blood at one time.

C) Less painful alternatives to retroorbital blood collection include lateral saphenous, facial (submandibular) and jugular vein blood collection.

11

o comply with both the Animal Welfare Regulations and PHS Policy, the IACUC must do which of the following after the initial review and approval of a protocol?

Perform an annual review prior to the first and second approval anniversaries, and perform a triennial review prior to the third anniversary.

12

n order to conduct official business throughout a convened meeting, a quorum of voting members must:

always be present.

13

When conducting the facilities inspection portion of the semi-annual evaluation in compliance with both the Animal Welfare Regulations and PHS Policy, the IACUC must include all areas housing animals for more than:

12 hours, and all investigator laboratory and study areas where surgery is performed.

14

Which group monitors the conditions of procedure rooms?
A) IACUC
B) USDA
C) AAALAC
D) All of the above

D) All of the above

15

How much extra caging can be stored in the procedure room at one time?

Enough for short term use (less than 2 days)

16

True or False: The euthanasia method to be used in the course of a research study does not need to be included in the animal use protocol if it is an acceptable method for the species used.

False

17

True or False: The IACUC may allow deviations from the AVMA guidelines if necessary for sound scientific reasons.

True

18

Which of the following factors should not be a consideration when choosing a method of euthanasia?
A. Preference of the personnel
B. Experimental variables of the specific study
C. Number of animals to be euthanized
D. Animal species and age

A. Preference of the personnel

19

T or F: Any technique that appears unpleasant to the personnel should be avoided.

False

20

T or F: Injectable euthanasia agents tend to act more quickly on sedated or anesthetized animals.

False

21

Euthanasia agents have three modes of action in inducing death. Which of the following is not a mode of action of euthanasia agents?
A. Depression of nerve cell activity necessary for life functions
B. Hypoxia
C. Physical disruption of brain activity
D. Paralysis of the muscle used in respiration

D. Paralysis of the muscle used in respiration

22

T or F: Unacceptable methods of euthanasia can only be used in very specific situations and the procedure must be done by a veterinarian.

False

23

Information on species-specific acceptable euthanasia methods can be found in which publication?
A. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
B. PHS Policy
C. Animal Welfare Act Regulations
D. AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia

D. AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia

24

T or F: Dry ice is an acceptable form of carbon dioxide for euthanizing rodents.

False

25

T or F: Inhalant euthanasia agents can be used for fish.

True

26


Which of the following gases has the potential for human abuse?
A. Nitrous oxide
B. Argon
C. Ether
D. Carbon dioxide

A. Nitrous oxide

27

Which of the following inhalant agents is flammable and explosive?
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Halothane
C. Isoflurane
D. Ether

D. Ether

28

A method that cannot be used as the sole method of euthanasia but is acceptable when used in conjunction with another method to ensure a humane death is called______.
A. Additional
B. Associative
C. Secondary
D. Adjunctive

D. Adjunctive

29

T or F: Carbon monoxide induces loss of consciousness with minimal signs of pain and distress in animals such as dogs and cats.

True

30

T or F: Terminal gasp is when cardiac arrest causes hypoxia, therefore stimulating the respiratory centers to hyperventilate. It happens during a stage of anesthesia where animals are unconscious and unaware (it is an unconscious reflex).

True

31

What is the most common injectable euthanasia agent used for injection?
A. Secobarbital
B. Pentobarbital
C. Tricaine methanesulfonate
D. Cyanide

B. Pentobarbital

32

T or F: Prolonged exposure to MS-222 can be harmful to humans.

True

33

Which of the following statements apply to MS-222?
A. Its effect is diminished in salt water
B. When dissolved in fresh water it is irritating to tissue
C. It is insoluble in water at neutral pH
D. All of the above

B. When dissolved in fresh water it is irritating to tissue

34

When used alone, which of the following agents are unacceptable for use in euthanasia?
A. Potassium chloride
B. Formalin
C. Neuromuscular blocking agents
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

35

T or F: Embutramide combinations are an acceptable euthanasia agent when injected by intravenous injection.

True

36

In the U. S., barbiturates are controlled by which federal agency?
A. OSHA
B. FDA
C. DEA
D. EPA

C. DEA

37

Which of the following is true regarding the use of carbon dioxide as euthanasia agent?
A. It is expensive.
B. It has a slow onset.
C. It is readily available.
D. All of the above

It is readily available.

38

Which of the following statements regarding physical methods of euthanasia is true?
A. Physical methods of euthanasia may be the most humane method for relieving pain and suffering in some instances.
B. Exsanguination, stunning, and pithing are acceptable physical methods of euthanasia for horses and cattle.
C. Physical methods of euthanasia always cause more distress for the animal.
D. There are few aesthetic considerations for this form of euthanasia.

Physical methods of euthanasia may be the most humane method for relieving pain and suffering in some instances.

39

Euthanasia agents that act by way of hypoxia are not recommended for which of the following groups of animals?
A. Warm-blooded neonates
B. Animals with respiratory problems
C. Ruminants
D. Older animals of most species

A. Warm-blooded neonates

40

Which of the following agents is not used as a sole euthanasia agent in rodents?
Isoflurane
Nitrous oxide
Carbon dioxide
Sevoflurane

Nitrous oxide

41

OLAW requires the use of an adjunctive method to ensure death for both neonate and adult mice when ________ is used as the euthanasia method.
potassium chloride injection
carbon dioxide
a barbiturate
carbon monoxide

carbon dioxide

42

Which of the following statements concerning euthanasia is incorrect?
When used alone, non-physical methods of euthanasia are usually preferred over physical methods.
Physical methods of euthanasia are most desirable when used on anesthetized animals.
Physical methods of euthanasia are most desirable when used on conscious animals.
The investigator must provide a scientific justification to the IACUC if a physical method will be used alone.

Physical methods of euthanasia are most desirable when used on conscious animals.

Read this question carefully!!

43

f using an anesthesia machine for euthanizing animals, which of the following is not a recommended process?
The correct vaporizer should be used.
The vaporizer should be calibrated correctly.
The animal should be exposed directly to the liquid agent.
An appropriate scavenging system should be in place.

The animal should be exposed directly to the liquid agent.

44

Under what circumstance is the IV or IC injection of potassium chloride an acceptable euthanasia method?
If the animal is anesthetized
When other methods have failed
If a catheter is used
When used in combination with a barbiturate

If the animal is anesthetized

45

Which of the following statements is true about the use of carbon monoxide for euthanasia?
Acceptable for individual or mass euthanasia of cattle, horses, and other large mammals.
This agent is safe to use by human operators.
Death occurs rapidly at concentrations of 4 to 6%.
It is extremely stressful to the animal.

Death occurs rapidly at concentrations of 4 to 6%.

46

What best describes acceptable euthanasia methods?
They are the most convenient method when large numbers of animals must be euthanized.
They have no effects on the personnel doing the procedure.
They consistently produce a humane death.
They cause immediate cessation of life.

They consistently produce a humane death.

47

Who is responsible for ensuring that the methods of euthanasia planned in studies using laboratory animals are consistent with the AVMA guidelines?
IACUC
Animal facility manager
Study director
The technician responsible for doing the procedure

IACUC

48

For which species is an adjunctive method of euthanasia is recommended to make sure that the animal is dead because detection of heartbeat is difficult in these animals?
Amphibians
Small rodents
Fish
Nonhuman primates

Small rodents

49

Which of the following statements is true of barbiturates?
These drugs are extremely painful when administered outside the vein.
Barbiturates cause the animal to gasp for air before becoming unconscious indicating some pain and distress.
Barbiturates break down quickly in the body so that carcasses of animals in which barbiturates were used for anesthesia do not represent a threat to predators which may eat them.
Pentobarbital is a barbiturate that is not classified as a controlled substance.

These drugs are extremely painful when administered outside the vein.

50

Physical methods of euthanasia cause death through destruction of:
chemical pathways in the heart muscle.
muscular activity in the body.
midbrain centers controlling respiratory and cardiac activity.
afferent pathways from the periphery to the brain.

midbrain centers controlling respiratory and cardiac activity.

51

What is the mode of euthanasia action for an overdose of barbiturates?
Causes hypoxia and brain activity ceases
Overstimulates the CNS causing cardiac arryhthmia
Paralyzes lungs and breathing ceases
Depresses the CNS leading to cardiac arrest

Depresses the CNS leading to cardiac arrest

52

Which of the following statements is true about routes of administration for injectable agents?
IP administration is optimal for irritating euthanasia agents.
IC injection is acceptable when the animal is either heavily sedated, anesthetized, or comatose.
When performing an IP injection, the drug must also contain a neuromuscular blocking agent.
IV adminstration produces the slowest loss of consciousness.

IC injection is acceptable when the animal is either heavily sedated, anesthetized, or comatose.

53

Which of the following statements is true when using CO2 for euthanasia?
Pulmonary lesions may occur if the carbon dioxide concentration reaches 40%.
It is best to combine carbon dioxide with oxygen for euthanasia.
The optimal flow rate is one that displaces 10% of the chamber volume every minute.
Gas flow should be maintained for at least 1 minute after apparent death to make sure the animal does not recover.

Gas flow should be maintained for at least 1 minute after apparent death to make sure the animal does not recover.

54

Which of these injectable agents is acceptable as the sole agent for euthanasia?
Potassium chloride
Sodium pentobarbital
Magnesium sulfate
Chloral hydrate

Sodium pentobarbital

55

In special circumstances that may indicate a need to deviate from the AVMA guidelines, what should be the deciding factor?
Expediency of the method
The decision of the IO
The cost of the procedure
The best interest of the animal

The best interest of the animal

56

Why is proper training in euthanasia techniques so important?
Improper technique can cause unnecessary pain and distress in animals.
Euthanasia solutions are expensive and would be wasted if used improperly.
Experiments can be performed more quickly if proper technique is used.
Training in euthanasia techniques can result in rapid job promotions.

Improper technique can cause unnecessary pain and distress in animals.

57

Confirmation of death is determined by:
Duration of euthanasia procedure
Use of an adjunctive euthanasia method
Lack of movement
Cessation of vital signs

Cessation of vital signs

58

T or F: Immersing aquatic species in a bath saturated with carbon dioxide is an acceptable euthanasia method.

True

59

Cervical dislocation should not be performed in rabbits weighing more than:
500 g.
2 kg.
1 kg.
800 g.

1 kg

60

Chloral hydrate is conditionally acceptable for use in large animals that:
will have an adjunctive method of euthanasia following the injection of chloral hydrate.
are already sedated.
cannot be easily restrained.
None of the above

are already sedated.

61

What is the recommended concentration of carbon monoxide used for euthanasia of small mammals?
4-6%
2-3%
8-10%
Over 10%

4-6%

62

Which of the following is not an appropriate method of confirming death prior to disposing of the animal's body?
Loss of eye blink reflex
Apnea
Loss of heartbeat
Lack of movement

Lack of movement

63

Which of the following is a definition of euthanasia as described in the AVMA Guidelines?
The act of preparing animals for a surgical or otherwise invasive procedure
The act of killing animals by methods that induce rapid unconsciousness and death with minimal pain or distress
The act of reducing the emotional state of animals under distress
The act of killing animals by methods that preserve physiologic function after death

The act of killing animals by methods that induce rapid unconsciousness and death with minimal pain or distress

64

A reflex movement during the euthanasia procedure indicates that the unconscious animal is still experiencing pain.

False

65

Which agency of the USDA carries out the regulatory functions designated by the Animal Welfare Regulations?
AVMA
AC
NIH
APHIS

APHIS

66

Which statement is TRUE regarding health requirements for shipping animals:
Health certificates specify the health care needs of an animal while in transit.
Health certificates must accompany any dog, cat or nonhuman primate transported by a research facility.
Health certificates must be dated within two months of the date of shipment.
Health certificates must accompany all covered species in transit.

Health certificates must accompany any dog, cat or nonhuman primate transported by a research facility.

67

How is a major operative procedure defined in the Animal Welfare Act Regulations?
A surgical procedure for which post-operative pain-relief is required
Incision through the skin and dissection of underlying tissues
A surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia
Penetration and exposure of a body cavity or substantial impairment of physical or physiological function

Penetration and exposure of a body cavity or substantial impairment of physical or physiological function

68

What is included in Animal Welfare Regulations for housing guinea pigs and/or hamsters?
Cages for hamsters must be at least 5 inches high.
Hamsters can be housed outside.
Cages for guinea pigs are required to be at least 7 inches high.
None of the above

Cages for guinea pigs are required to be at least 7 inches high.

69

A facility houses rabbits in a suite of rooms. In each room, rabbits are contained in a pen that occupies most of the floor space. Straw bedding and nest boxes are scattered in the pen. What is the primary enclosure of these rabbits?
The pen
The room
The suite
The nest boxes

The pen

70

What is not required by Animal Welfare Regulations in housing facilities?
To have a power and water supply
To be maintained in good repair
To have a fire alarm and sprinkler system
To provide for proper storage of food and bedding

To have a fire alarm and sprinkler system

71

Which statement is TRUE about exercise plans for dogs?
Exercise plans are not required if dogs are walked or allowed out of their cages daily.
Exercise plans require an animal to be released from its primary enclosure.
Exercise plans are required for all facilities housing dogs.
Exercise plans do not need approval by the attending veterinarian.

Exercise plans are required for all facilities housing dogs.

72

What is one objective of the annual report to the USDA/APHIS?
Assure that the facility complies with the AWA standards and regulations.
Track and account for animal shipments received by the facility.
Describe the animal use protocols in use at the research facility.
List all personnel associated with animal care.

Assure that the facility complies with the AWA standards and regulations.

73

How frequently does the USDA conduct inspections of research facilities?
Every six months
Biannually
Quarterly
Once a year

Once a year

74

The AWA Regulations require that the attending veterinarian must:
Have authority to ensure adequate veterinary care.
Appoint members to the IACUC.
Investigate public concerns over animal care and use.
Approve animal use protocols.

Have authority to ensure adequate veterinary care.

75

Record-keeping requirements of the Animal Welfare Regulations state that:
Disposition records must accompany the dog or cat when it leaves the research facility.
Animal health records must be maintained for all vertebrate species.
Acquisition records must be maintained for dogs and cats that are received by the facility.
IACUC records for meetings and protocols must be maintained but are not open to inspection by the USDA.

Acquisition records must be maintained for dogs and cats that are received by the facility.

76

Dogs obtained from a Class B dealer may originate from what source?
Hobby breeder
Animal broker
Animal pound
All of the above

All of the above

77

What source of dogs and cats is not permitted for procurement by Class B dealers?
Feral dogs and cats
Pounds and shelters
Class A dealers
Hobby breeders

Feral dogs and cats

78

Which of the following information need not be present on an official tag?
Date of birth
Numbers identifying the dealer
The letters "USDA"
Numbers identifying the animal

Date of birth

79

Animal Welfare Regulations for rabbits require:
Mechanical heating for rabbits housed inside.
A minimum cage height of 16 inches.
Underlying pans/troughs to be cleaned every 2 weeks.
Cages to be sanitized once every 30 days.

Cages to be sanitized once every 30 days.

80

What space requirements for cats are included in the Animal Welfare Regulations?
Although not required, cats should have an elevated resting surface.
Breeding bitches and queens do not need additional floor space.
All animals must have a minimum of six inches head room when in their normal standing position.
If clean and sanitized, the litter box can be counted as floor space.

If clean and sanitized, the litter box can be counted as floor space.

81

What determines cage space requirements for nonhuman primates as outlined in the Animal Welfare Regulations?
Nutritional needs of the nonhuman primates
Weight group of the nonhuman primates
Length of the nonhuman primates
None of the above

Weight group of the nonhuman primates

82

A person supplying dogs to research is exempted from licensing with the USDA under which of the following conditions?
Fewer than 25 dogs born on their premises are sold within a one-year period.
Provided dogs are already dead.
The primary business is as an animal exhibitor.
Less than $15,000 gross income is derived annually from the sale of dogs to research.

Fewer than 25 dogs born on their premises are sold within a one-year period.

83

What change was made to the Animal Welfare Act by the 1990 pet protection amendment?
Cats and dogs must undergo a 5-day holding period before being acquired by a dealer.
Cats and dogs cannot be obtained for research from dealers.
Dealers can only acquire cats and dogs from pounds and shelters.
Cats and dogs cannot be obtained from pounds or shelters.

Cats and dogs must undergo a 5-day holding period before being acquired by a dealer.

84

What identification requirement applies to a litter of unweaned puppies and kittens?
All animals in a litter must wear a plastic collar marked with each animal's number.
All animals in a litter must be noted for distinctive markings.
All animals in a litter must be tattooed with an individual number.
No individual identification is necessary while the litter is housed with the identified dam.

No individual identification is necessary while the litter is housed with the identified dam.

85

Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of the IACUC?
Reviewing and investigating staff reports about noncompliance with AWA regulations and standards
Specifying veterinary treatments to be administered to facility animals
Reviewing and approving animal use protocols
Performing a semi-annual review of the animal care program and inspection of all animal facility areas

Specifying veterinary treatments to be administered to facility animals

86

Which of these species is excluded from the Animal Welfare Act when used for biomedical research?
Rabbits
Fish
Wild mice
Horses

Fish

87

If a research facility considers acquiring a cat from a person exempt from USDA licensing, what requirement applies to this transaction?
The facility does not need to observe the 5-day requirement for holding the cat.
The cat supplier must comply with record-keeping requirements for Class B dealers.
The facility must obtain a health certificate for the cat.
The cat supplier must be reviewed and approved by the USDA.

The facility does not need to observe the 5-day requirement for holding the cat.

88

Record-keeping requirements of the Animal Welfare Regulations state that:
Documentation of breeding pedigrees records are open to inspection by the USDA.
Mandated facility records must be kept for a minimum period of six months.
IACUC records for meeting minutes, protocols and semiannual reports must be available to USDA inspection.
Documentation is not required for the disposition of dogs, cats and nonhuman primates.

IACUC records for meeting minutes, protocols and semiannual reports must be available to USDA inspection.

89

According to the Animal Wefare Act Regulations, a study area refers to:
Laboratory area inside the animal facility where in vitro studies are performed.
Laboratory area outside the animal facility where procedures are conducted on animals for any length of time.
An area outside the animal facility in which animals are housed for more than 12 hours.
Support area inside the animal facility where veterinary treatments, diagnostic testing and necropsies are performed.

An area outside the animal facility in which animals are housed for more than 12 hours.

90

What is not required by Animal Welfare Regulations for transport cages?
An elevated screened bottom to keep animals off the floor of the cage
A mark with the letters “Live Animals”
Hand holds for easy lifting
A design that allows no part of the animal's body to be outside the enclosure

An elevated screened bottom to keep animals off the floor of the cage

91

Who is responsible by law for ensuring proper training?

IACUC

92

What is the recommendation for preparation for non-survival surgery?

If an animal undergoes non-survival surgery, the fur around the surgical site should be clipped and clean instruments should be used.

93

Which of the following is not allowed by USDA policy, unless the IACUC approves?

Entries on postoperative care records by multiple individuals.
Changes in animal ownership and movement of animals between facilities during the postoperative period.
Entries on postoperative care records by non-veterinarians.
Actions taken to ensure continuity of postoperative care.

Changes in animal ownership and movement of animals between facilities during the postoperative period.

94

Which of the following is false concerning prolonged restraint of animals?

The restraint method used should be the least restrictive possible that will allow achievement of experimental objectives.
The period of restraint should be the minimum required to achieve experimental objectives.
It should not be considered a normal method of housing.
It can be justified simply as a convenience for the research staff.

t can be justified simply as a convenience for the research staff.

95

If primate chairing is proposed as a method of restraint, which of the following is false?

The primates must be given at least an hour break during each 12 hour period of chairing.
The primate may be chaired indefinitely if no signs of distress are apparent.
The primates should be given training to adapt them to the chair.
The primates should be observed at appropriate intervals, as determined by the IACUC.

The primate may be chaired indefinitely if no signs of distress are apparent.

96

Which of the following statements is true if an investigator wants to use a human clinical area for animal research?

Signs announcing the use of animals in a clinical area must be posted on the door of the clinical area for the duration of the procedure.
Permission should be obtained from the IACUC and responsible clinical administrators.
Sanitizing the area after use can be left to the night housekeeping crew as long as they get to the job within 12 hours.
Signs announcing the use of animals in a clinical area must be posted for 14 days prior to use at high traffic areas throughout the hospital.

Permission should be obtained from the IACUC and responsible clinical administrators.

97

In a research study on the effect of a feed additive on weight gain in swine and funded by the feed manufacturer, which of the following regulatory agencies has jurisdiction over the study?

The American Association for Laboratory Science (AALAS)
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
The United States Department of the Interior (USDI)
The Public Health Service (PHS)
None of the above

None of the above (please explain why)

98

Which of the following is a true statement about occupational risks of working with swine?

None of the above is true
Allergy to swine is a common occupational hazard for handlers of pigs.
Balantidium coli is a protozoan parasite that may cause gastrointestinal illness in humans.
Bacterial zoonoses are not a problem when using pigs.
Back injury may occur during attempts to lift pigs.

Balantidium coli is a protozoan parasite that may cause gastrointestinal illness in humans.

Back injury may occur during attempts to lift pigs.

99

Which of the following alternatives would be suitable to consider in a study using swine?

Increase the sample size to compensate for losses associated with personnel inexperienced in the procedure.
Substituting sheep for pigs as the proposed animal model because they are a less sentient species.
Substituting an animal model that is less expensive than swine.
Avoid using an analgesic after a surgical procedure to minimize experimental variability.
Replacing swine with an animal known to be a superior model for the problem being studied.

Replacing swine with an animal known to be a superior model for the problem being studied.

100

Which of the following is true with regard to housing swine?

Male and female pigs of breeding age should be segregated except when reproduction is necessary.
Pigs are sociable and benefit from frequent rearrangements of social groups.
If slotted floors are used, the largest openings available should be used to prevent accumulation of feces.
Swine are solitary animals and should be housed singly if possible.
Baby pigs need a warmer environment than older animals.

Male and female pigs of breeding age should be segregated except when reproduction is necessary.

Baby pigs need a warmer environment than older animals.

101

Which of the following is true with regard to SPF swine?

SPF is a term that was invented by the USDA for breeders of laboratory mice and rats.
SPF is the usual health standard for farm pigs sold commercially.
SPF refers to: "Swine, Parasite Free"
SPF swine are not free from all disease but are likely to be healthier than conventional swine.
SPF swine are certified to be free from enzootic pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, and congenital anomalies.

SPF swine are not free from all disease but are likely to be healthier than conventional swine.

The term Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF) was invented by the National Specific-Pathogen-Free Swine Accrediting Agency. It is the preferred standard for pigs used in experimentation. SPF refers to pathogenic disease, not congenital anomalies. SPF swine are not guaranteed to be free of all disease, only of "specific" ones.

102

T or F: Local farmers are the best source of research pigs because transport stress in the animals is minimized.

False

103

T or F: Quarantine and acclimation periods have different goals and so they should be observed sequentially.

False, they have different goals but are usually run concurrently

104

Which of the following are characteristics of swine?

Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia.
The heart is similar to the human heart.
The colon consists of an ascending segment, a transverse segment and a descending segment as in humans.
The skin is relatively attached to the underlying tissues and so is not a good model for human skin.
Incisors that grow continuously.

Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia.

The heart is similar to the human heart.

(They have a "spinal" colon and the skin is attached, but it is also a good model of human wound healing).

105

Which of the following sites are readily available for intravenous injections in anesthetized swine?

Ear vein
Orbital sinus
Facial vein
Lingual vein
Cephalic vein

All but orbital sinus

106

Anesthesia in swine is characterized by which of the following statements?

After the endotracheal tube is advanced to the vocal folds, it should be rotated to ease passage into the trachea.
Because of the long oropharynx and redundant soft tissue, endotracheal intubation is best accomplished using a "blind" approach as is the case in rabbits.
Inhalant anesthesia is preferable to injectable regimens for long surgical procedures.
The laryngeal opening provides a good estimate for the size of the trachea.
None of the above

Inhalant anesthesia is preferable to injectable regimens for long surgical procedures.

After the endotracheal tube is advanced to the vocal folds, it should be rotated to ease passage into the trachea.

107

The following agents may be expected to produce analgesia:

Diazepam
Azaperone
Acepromazine
Xylazine
Buprenorphine

Xylazine
Buprenorphine

108

Which of the following statements about IACUC members is true?

Non-affiliated members must not be employees of the institution, but may have an immediate family member employed at the institution.
The non-scientific member may have "primary concerns" in a scientific area.
Each IACUC must have at least 2 scientists with animal research experience.
Non-affiliated members must not utilize laboratory animals at any research facility.

Non-affiliated members must not utilize laboratory animals at any research facility.

109

How does OLAW define a suspension?

OLAW considers a suspension to be a temporary or permanent interruption of an animal activity by the IACUC.

110

With regard to conducting IACUC business, the definition of a quorum is:

Fifty percent of the voting members.
More than fifty percent (a majority) of voting and non-voting members combined.
More than fifty percent (a majority) of voting members.
Fifty percent of voting and non-voting members combined.

More than fifty percent (a majority) of voting members.

111

Which of the following statements is true regarding the IACUC-performed three-year (triennial) review of animal activities (protocols)?

If an investigator will finish animal work prior to the fourth anniversary of receiving initial IACUC approval, the triennial review does not need to be performed.
If an investigator has a grant that extends beyond three years, the triennial review can be postponed until the end of the granting period.
PHS Policy mandates a review according to regulations and policies in place at the time of the triennial review, whether or not new protocol forms are completed.
PHS Policy mandates the completion of new protocol forms by the investigator for IACUC review, unless given a waiver by the IACUC.

PHS Policy mandates a review according to regulations and policies in place at the time of the triennial review, whether or not new protocol forms are completed.

112

To comply with both the USDA Animal Welfare Act Regulations and PHS Policy, the IACUC must do which of the following after the initial review and approval of a protocol?

Perform only a triennial review prior to the third approval anniversary.
Perform one annual review prior to the second approval anniversary, then perform a triennial review prior to the third anniversary.
Perform one annual and one triennial review prior to the third approval anniversary.
Perform an annual review prior to the first and second approval anniversaries, and perform a triennial review prior to the third anniversary.

Perform an annual review prior to the first and second approval anniversaries, and perform a triennial review prior to the third anniversary.

113

What information must be provided in the report for deficiencies identified during the IACUC semi-annual self-evaluation?

A reasonable and specific plan for correcting significant and minor deficiencies and a schedule for completing the corrective actions.
A reasonable and specific plan and schedule for correcting significant deficiencies, and a description of minor deficiencies.
The name and title of the IACUC member who will perform the corrections and the institutional official in charge of verifying the corrections.
The name and title of institutional support personnel who will provide the corrections and the IACUC members in charge of verifying the corrections.

A reasonable and specific plan for correcting significant and minor deficiencies and a schedule for completing the corrective actions.

114

Which statement applies to experimental surgery on animals?
Sterile technique is required for all surgeries.
Sterile technique is optional for most survival surgeries.
General or regional anesthesia is required to prevent pain during surgery.
Rodent surgery requires the use of a dedicated surgical facility.

General or regional anesthesia is required to prevent pain during surgery.

115

Who is given institutional responsibility for deciding if an individual researcher is properly trained to perform animal procedures, as required by law?
Institutional official
Animal Facility Director
IACUC
Attending veterinarian

IACUC

116

Which of the following statements identifies an appropriate approach for maintaining compliance?
A good way to avoid noncompliance is to not tell anyone what procedures you are performing on animals.
You do not need to be an expert in all the rules and regulations, just make sure you read, understand, and follow your approved IACUC protocol.
Reading the protocol is optional; just make sure you are trained by someone in the lab on what you will be doing with animals.
When joining a laboratory that uses animals in research you will need to memorize the Guide, Animal Welfare Act, and the PHS Policy.

You do not need to be an expert in all the rules and regulations, just make sure you read, understand, and follow your approved IACUC protocol.

117

f the ascites method of obtaining monoclonal antibody must be used, all of the following would likely decrease animal pain/distress EXCEPT:
Limiting the amount of pristane used to prime the abdomen.
Using endpoint criteria tailored to mice with ascites.
Increasing the number of abdominal taps performed to prolong animal use.
Daily monitoring the degree of abdominal distension and respiratory distress caused by the ascites.

Increasing the number of abdominal taps performed to prolong animal use.

118

Although the use of a rumen tube during anesthesia can be a life-saving procedure, it also can be problematic because it:
removes digested food so the animal may be excessively hungry postoperatively.
may contribute to hyperventilation post-operatively.
may remove the "good" flora from the rumen and may cause digestive problems.
may cause blood pressure to drop severely.

may remove the "good" flora from the rumen and may cause digestive problems.

119

Where is Coxiella burnetii concentrated in a sheep?
In its gastrointestinal tract
In the female reproductive tissues
In its eyes and mouth
In the male testes and reproductive tissues

In the female reproductive tissues

120

Which of the following statements is NOT a characteristic of pre-anesthetic drugs:
They decrease fear and apprehension.
When used they increase the amount of anesthetic required for surgery.
They facilitate handling and induction of anesthesia.
They are usually used for goats but not sheep.

When used they increase the amount of anesthetic required for surgery.

121

Sheep should always be grasped by the wool.
True
False

False

122

Under what conditions is Coxiella burnetii most likely to become aerosolized?
During defecation and urination
During shearing of the wool
During parturition and spontaneous abortion
During regurgitating or vomiting

During defecation and urination

123

Sheep and goats do not have any top incisor teeth.
True
False

True

124

How many large, permanent incisor teeth will a goat that is 1 year old have?
2
4
6
3
0

2

125

Trimming the hooves of sheep and goats is important for maintaining even wear and preventing hoof rot. How often should hooves be trimmed?
Every 12 to 16 months
Every 6 to 12 months
Every 6 weeks to 3 months
Every 2 to 4 weeks

Every 6 weeks to 3 months

126

Which of the following is NOT true about feeding and watering sheep and goats?
They should be offered clean water ad libitum.
They may refuse to eat stale or dusty food.
They spend lots of time chewing their cud.
They should be fed non-irradiated hay.

They should be fed non-irradiated hay.

127

Which of the following occupational health and safety concerns are NOT relevant to working with guinea pigs?

Allergies
Microsporum fungal infection
Toxoplasmosis
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM) infection
All of the above

Toxoplasmosis

128

Which statement is true regarding antibiotic administration to guinea pigs?

At most, the only adverse effect of antibiotics in guinea pigs is a mild diarrhea that is well tolerated by the animals.
Guinea pigs commonly develop a toxic shock syndrome when administered antibiotics.
Antibiotics should be administered routinely following surgery in guinea pigs.
Gram positive antibiotics are preferred for use in guinea pigs.

Guinea pigs commonly develop a toxic shock syndrome when administered antibiotics.

129

What concept is relevant to the proper conduct of euthanasia?

The selection of an appropriate euthanasia method need not address esthetic considerations for staff and onlookers.
The selection of an appropriate euthanasia method should address considerations of humaneness to the animal, and safety and esthetics for the staff.
Experimental criteria are the primary determinant of the euthanasia method that is acceptable for an animal.
Staff competence to handle and restrain the species of animal is the training objective for performing euthanasia.

The selection of an appropriate euthanasia method should address considerations of humaneness to the animal, and safety and esthetics for the staff.

130

Which statement is TRUE regarding venipuncture procedures in guinea pigs?
The guinea pig lacks accessible peripheral veins in the hind limb.
The orbital venous sinus is a preferred location for blood collection.
Cardiac puncture is most often only permitted as a terminal procedure.
Sedation reduces the volume of blood that can be collected from peripheral veins.

Cardiac puncture is most often only permitted as a terminal procedure.

131

Fasting of guinea pigs before endotracheal intubation is necessary because:
Guinea pigs may vomit during anesthesia.
The endotracheal tube may carry food from the oropharynx into the trachea.
The endotracheal tube may stimulate vomiting.
All of the above

The endotracheal tube may carry food from the oropharynx into the trachea.

132

According to the AVMA, which methods are acceptable, when used alone, for euthanasia of guinea pigs?
Inhalation of carbon dioxide
Inhalation of nitrogen
Overdose of anesthetic
Cervical dislocation

Inhalation of carbon dioxide
Overdose of anesthetic

133

Which site is least traumatic for nonterminal venipuncture in hamsters?
Lateral saphenous vein
Jugular vein
Retroorbital sinus
Heart

Lateral saphenous vein

134

All of the following are true EXCEPT:
Hamsters are very active at night and spend most of their day asleep.
Hamsters are solitary animals and may prefer to be housed separately.
Both male and female hamsters have scent glands.
Hamsters prefer to eat feed pellets from a J-feeder attached to the cage.

Hamsters prefer to eat feed pellets from a J-feeder attached to the cage.

135

Which of the following oversees research using hamsters?
OLAW
AAALAC
USDA
NIH
All of the above

All of the above

136

Which statement is true regarding supportive care for dogs during anesthesia?

Anesthetized dogs may require a warming device for surgeries of duration in excess of several hours.
Dogs maintain a normal body temperature during anesthesia and so do not require a warming device.
Anesthetized dogs should be placed on a warming device because dogs lose body heat rapidly under anesthesia.
The use of a warming device to maintain body temperature in anesthetized dogs is required by USDA regulations.

Anesthetized dogs should be placed on a warming device because dogs lose body heat rapidly under anesthesia.

137

Which statement is TRUE related to the management of laboratory dogs?

Housing of dogs in compatible pairs or groups is recommended.
Dogs can be exempted from exercise programs only for medical reasons.
Having an exercise programs for dogs is at the discretion of the attending veterinarian.
Dogs that fight should remain housed together so that they may establish their dominance hierarchy, after which fighting will end.

Housing of dogs in compatible pairs or groups is recommended.

138

Which of the following are occupational health concerns for laboratory staff working with dogs?

Zoonoses
Back injuries
Allergies
Bites
All of the above

All of the above

139

Which statement is true regarding sources of laboratory dogs?

Laboratory dogs must be obtained from USDA-licensed dealers or pounds or shelters.
Class-A source dogs include pet animals loaned for research by private owners.
Purpose bred dogs typically lack pedigrees and a defined health status.
The health status of random source and purpose bred dogs is generally equivalent.

Laboratory dogs must be obtained from USDA-licensed dealers or pounds or shelters.

140

Which statement is true regarding venipuncture procedures in dogs?

Sedation is recommended for routine venipuncture for the purpose of facilitating animal restraint.
The jugular vein is not recommended for bleeding because of difficulty in accessing this vein.
Removing more than 10% of the total blood volume in a single bleeding can produce hypovolemic shock.
For routine venipuncture, the femoral vein is preferred over the jugular and cephalic veins.

Removing more than 10% of the total blood volume in a single bleeding can produce hypovolemic shock.

141

Which of the following are occupational health concerns for laboratory staff working with cats?

Zoonoses
Bites
Back injuries
Slips and falls
Allergies

Zoonoses
Bites
Allergies

142

Which of the following would usually allow for reduced aggression in swine?

Keeping one male in a group of females
Establishing a social hierarchy
Housing pigs together in groups of 4-6 animals
Doubling the amount of cage floor space

Establishing a social hierarchy

143

Which of the following is true with regard to monitoring and supporting swine during or after a procedure?

Monitoring should continue through the procedure and afterwards until wound healing is complete.
IV fluids are never needed unless blood loss is expected.
Warming devices are not needed because pigs have a thick layer of subcutaneous fat.
Swine are naturally resistant to induction of cardiac arrhythmias.
Antibiotics should be administered to prevent infections after sterile surgery.

Monitoring should continue through the procedure and afterwards until wound healing is complete.

144

What is a common result of chronic stress in swine?

Erythema
Pneumonia
Lameness
Gastric ulcer

Gastric ulcer

145

Which of the following alternatives would be suitable to consider in a study using swine?

Replacing swine with an animal known to be a superior model for the problem being studied
Increasing the sample size to compensate for losses associated with personnel inexperienced in the procedure
Substituting an animal model that is less expensive than swine
Avoiding use of an analgesic after a surgical procedure to minimize experimental variability
Substituting sheep for pigs as the proposed animal model because they are a less sentient species

Replacing swine with an animal known to be a superior model for the problem being studied

146

Which of the following is true with regard to specific pathogen-free (SPF) swine?

SPF is the usual health standard for farm pigs sold commercially.
SPF swine are not free from all disease but are likely to be healthier than conventional swine.
The SPF status applies to mini-pigs only.
SPF swine are certified to be free from enzootic pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, and congenital anomalies.
SPF is a term that was borrowed from breeders of laboratory mice and rats.

SPF swine are not free from all disease but are likely to be healthier than conventional swine.

147

It is optional but advisable for institutions with PHS funding to provide an occupational health program for personnel who work with animals.

True
False

False

148

Which of the following is true regarding handling or restraint of pigs?

Pigs tend to follow one another.
Pigs should be conditioned to become accustomed to humans to minimize the stress of handling.
A "hog board" may be helpful in herding or restraining a pig.
A snare may be of value for restraining very large swine.
All of the above

All of the above

149

Which statement is true about swine anatomy?
The pig heart is similar to man’s with the exception of the coronary artery distribution.
The liver of the pig has four lobes that are grossly visible due to separation by fine connective tissue.
The pig has a trachea equal in size to the laryngeal diameter.
Pigs have loosely attached skin making them ideal to receive therapeutic fluids intravenously.

The liver of the pig has four lobes that are grossly visible due to separation by fine connective tissue.

150

In a research environment, swine should not be housed singly.
True
False

False

151

Which of the following procedures would require use of a dedicated, sterile surgery facility in a biomedical research study?
Dental extraction
Ovariectomy
Percutaneous catheterization of the cranial vena cava
Cardiac catheterization via a femoral artery cutdown
Cesarean section

•Ovariectomy
•Cesarean section

152

Which statement is true about analgesics in swine?

Use of NSAIDS postoperatively is discouraged due to side effects.
Telazol is not well tolerated by swine.
Postoperative administration of opioids by intravenous injection is preferred.
Analgesic sedatives may be combined with general anesthetics.

Analgesic sedatives may be combined with general anesthetics.

153

Quarantine and conditioning periods have different goals and so they should be observed sequentially.

True
False

False

154

Which of the following represents an animal procedure using a nonhuman primate?

Use of personal protective equipment by animal technicians
Checking thermostat settings in the animal room
Weighing the animal
Collecting a fecal sample from the cage

Weighing the animal

155

Bluish mucous membranes would indicate which of the following?

Dehydration
Depressed respiration
Poor thermal regulation due to anesthesia
Poor oxygenation of the tissues

Poor oxygenation

156

Which species of NHP can develop clinical signs of B virus infection?

African green monkey
Squirrel monkey
Macaque
Chimpanzee

Macaque

157

Which biological feature characterizes most members of the order Primata?

Ridged, tactile pads at the end of the digits
Two rows of abdominal nipples
Continuous growth of the canine teeth
Monoscopic vision with lateral facing eyes

Ridged, tactile pads at the end of the digits

158

Who directs the plan for psychological enrichment of the NHP colony?

Facility manager
IACUC
Principal investigator
Attending veterinarians

Attending veterinarians

159

Which statement about anesthesia in NHPs is FALSE?

Inhalation agents are usually preferable choices for most procedures because they provide rapid control of anesthetic depth and consistent anesthesia.
Enflurane is probably the most commonly used inhalation agent in use in research animals today.
To avoid spasms of the larynx when intubating a NHP, you can provide anesthesia by mask before introducing the tube.
Inhalation anesthesia should be accompanied by endotracheal intubation.

Enflurane is probably the most commonly used inhalation agent in use in research animals today.

160

Which of the following is the minimum requirement for providing housing supportive of the psychological well-being of NHPs?

Olfactory contact with other NHPs
A cagemate
Physical contact with other NHPs
Visual contact with other NHPs

Visual contact with other NHPs

161

Which of the following would help determine the length of a quarantine period for new arrivals in an NHP colony?

The time required for the animal to become acclimated to its environment
The time required to establish that the animal is B virus free
The time required to establish that the animal is specific pathogen-free for all zoonotic diseases
The time required to undergo at least three tuberculin tests administered two weeks apart

The time required to undergo at least three tuberculin tests administered two weeks apart

162

Which of the following would be considered major survival surgery in a nonhuman primate?

Extraction of a canine tooth
Amputation of a broken toe
Suture of a laceration on the palm
Laparoscopic removal of the ovaries

Laparoscopic removal of the ovaries

163

Which statement is TRUE?

NHPs used in research are more often imported directly from wild populations so that the natural disease states can be studied.
Wild populations of NHPs are no longer a main source for research programs because countries of origin are charging more for their export.
The quality of available NHPs for research has declined as fewer countries allow the exportation of wild-caught NHPs.
NHPs are considered potential sources of infection for existing colony primates and for personnel, whether wild-caught or purpose-bred.

NHPs are considered potential sources of infection for existing colony primates and for personnel, whether wild-caught or purpose-bred.

164

Which of the following animals could most reasonably be expected to be in pain?

A squirrel monkey that ignores its normal diet in favor of raisins offered by research technicians
A rhesus macaque that grimaces when a new technician approaches its cage
A baboon that allows a lower ranking animal to groom it
A cynomolgus monkey that has not eaten in three days

A cynomolgus monkey that has not eaten in three days

165

Which of these statements regarding euthanasia is a valid statement?

Only agents listed in the AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia as acceptable may be used in a scientific protocol.
The inclusion of conditionally acceptable methods in your protocol can be approved by the attending veterinarian.
Experimental criteria are the primary determinants of the euthanasia method chosen for the animal.
The inclusion of conditionally acceptable methods in your protocol may require scientific justification in order to obtain IACUC approval.

The inclusion of conditionally acceptable methods in your protocol may require scientific justification in order to obtain IACUC approval.

166

Which of the following best represents the concept of replacement, reduction, and refinement when using nonhuman primates in biomedical research?

Relieve procedural pain by administration of appropriate use of analgesic or anesthetic drugs.
Replace primates with a less expensive lab animal species that is not as good a model for the problem being studied.
Restrain primates manually for a painful procedure instead of administering sedative drugs to lessen distress.
Refine the protocol to use a minimally invasive technique such as laparoscopic surgery instead of an open abdominal procedure.
Reduce the number of animals to be used as long as the numbers remain sufficient to generate a valid conclusion.

•Reduce the number of animals to be used as long as the numbers remain sufficient to generate a valid conclusion.
•Refine the protocol to use a minimally invasive technique such as laparoscopic surgery instead of an open abdominal procedure.
•Relieve procedural pain by administration of appropriate use of analgesic or anesthetic drugs.

167

Which of the following agencies exercises its regulatory authority through the CITES agreement?

The PHS
AAALAC
The USDA
The US Fish and Wildlife Service

The US Fish and Wildlife Service

168

What factor limits the use of the external jugular vein for blood collection?

The external jugular vein is too small to collect sufficient amounts of blood.
This vein tends to collapse easily making blood collection extremely difficult.
It is not typically visible in nonhuman primates.
Access is inconvenient due to the short neck of most nonhuman primates.

Access is inconvenient due to the short neck of most nonhuman primates.

169

What is CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (for international commerce of NHPs)

170

What is ESA

Endangered species act (for interstate commerce of NHPs)

171

Which of the following is an injectable anesthetic agent?

Acepromazine
Buprenorphine
Sevoflurane
Ketamine

Ketamine

172

After a bite or scratch from a rhesus monkey, which of the following is the first action that should be taken?

The individual should be taken immediately to a physician who is familiar with B virus.
The animal that caused the wound should be examined for signs of B-virus infection.
The victim should be provided with appropriate personal protective equipment.
The wound should be vigorously washed in soap and water for 15 minutes.
The wound should be cultured.

The wound should be vigorously washed in soap and water for 15 minutes.

173

Which of the following statements is true about Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)?

Although SIV has a close relationship to HIV, its inability to infect human tissues demonstrates that SIV is not considered hazardous to humans in the research environment.
The virus occurs naturally in certain species of African monkeys such as the African Green Monkey and the Sooty Mangabey, causing an apparent immunodeficiency syndrome.
Animals infected with SIV must be housed in BSL-1 facilities and handled using BSL-2 procedures as described in the BMBL publication.
SIV has a close relationship to HIV so it has the ability to infect human tissues, and there is evidence of human serologic conversion; thus, SIV should be considered hazardous to humans.

SIV has a close relationship to HIV so it has the ability to infect human tissues, and there is evidence of human serologic conversion; thus, SIV should be considered hazardous to humans.

174

Who has the responsibility to ensure all staff working with animals are properly trained?
IACUC
Veterinarian
Facility manager
Investigator

Investigator

175

Regarding considerations related to the handling of nonhuman primates, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Animals should always be handled when conscious and with the use of appropriate PPE because it is difficult and time consuming to anesthetize NHPs.
Males of all species possess canine teeth that are long and sharp and are adapted for fighting one another.
Physical hazards of nonhuman primates include the weight of some NHP species because personnel may be injured when lifting the animal.
NHPs of all species pose a danger for bite and scratch injuries.

Animals should always be handled when conscious and with the use of appropriate PPE because it is difficult and time consuming to anesthetize NHPs.

176

Which of the following would be an acceptable agent for postoperative pain relief in a nonhuman primate?

Acepromazine
Ketamine
Midazolam
Ketoprofen

Ketoprofen

177

Which of the following blood collection sites usually requires a "blind stick" in nonhuman primates?

Jugular vein
Cephalic vein
Saphenous vein
Femoral vein

Femoral vein

178

What does AWR require of prolonged restraint is approved by the IACUC

Animal be released from restraint for at least one continuous hour after every 12 hours of restraint.

179

Which of the following are acceptable methods of restraining nonhuman primates when used properly?

Manual restraint using leather or Kevlar gloves, long sleeves, and face protection
Pole and collar system
Restraint chair
Squeeze cages
All of the above

All of the above

180

What are 4 common NSAIDs for NHPs

Carprofen
Meloxicam
Ketoprofen
Ketorolac

181

What are 4 common sedatives for NHPs

Diazepam
Midazolam
Droperidol
Acepromazine

182

Check all that apply. Which of the following would be an acceptable agent for postoperative pain relief in a nonhuman primate?

Buprenorphine
Morphine
Ketoprofen
Midazolam
Acepromazine

Buprenorphine
Morphine
Ketoprofen

183

Which class of drugs is particularly useful to prevent or control seizure activity associated with ketamine anesthesia in NHPs?

Benzodiazepines
Thiazines
Opioids
NSAIDs

Benzodiazepines

184

Which of the following drugs would provide a sedative effect without ablating pain perception?

Halothane
Telazol®
Ketamine
Diazepam

Diazepam

185

Which of the following should be routine practices during or after conducting uncomplicated aseptic surgical procedures in nonhuman primates?

Providing adequate fluid support
Administration of antibiotics to prevent infection
Observing the animal until it is recovers from anesthesia
Use of a special recovery cage
Administration of drugs to relieve pain

Providing adequate fluid support

Observing the animal until it is recovers from anesthesia

Administration of drugs to relieve pain

186

Which of the following animals could reasonably be expected to be in pain?

A pigtail macaque that remains lying down in its cage when a technician approaches
A squirrel monkey that ignores its normal diet in favor of raisins offered by research technicians
A baboon that allows a lower ranking animal to groom it
A rhesus monkey with a red, swollen knee that uses the leg to push back against a squeeze cage when being restrained
A cynomolgus monkey that has not eaten in three days

A pigtail macaque that remains lying down in its cage when a technician approaches
A rhesus monkey with a red, swollen knee that uses the leg to push back against a squeeze cage when being restrained
A cynomolgus monkey that has not eaten in three days

187

Who is primarily responsible for ensuring that laboratory staff have an opportunity to participate in the institutional health and safety program?

The institutional safety officer
The principal investigator
The IACUC chair
The attending veterinarian
None of the above

The principal investigator

188

Which of the following are valid components of an occupational health and safety program in a facility that uses nonhuman primates?

Use of personal protective equipment
Periodic TB testing of colony primates
Periodic TB testing of personnel working with colony primates
Quarantine of newly acquired primates
Training in use of universal precautions

Use of personal protective equipment
Periodic TB testing of colony primates
Periodic TB testing of personnel working with colony primates
Quarantine of newly acquired primates
Training in use of universal precautions

189

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding zoonotic diseases?

Nonhuman primates have so many differences from humans that most infectious diseases that affect them do not affect humans.
Tuberculosis can be contracted by nonhuman primates from humans, but NHPs do not transmit the mycobacterium to humans.
B virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and tuberculosis are zoonotic diseases transmitted from NHPs to humans.
Transmission of zoonotic disease from naturally infected laboratory animals is extremely common in spite of the ongoing efforts to improve the health status of animals by vendors.

B virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and tuberculosis are zoonotic diseases transmitted from NHPs to humans.

190

Which of the following statements is true?

NHPs infected with Ebola or Marburg can be safely handled at BSL-2 with gown, mask, and gloves used as PPE.
All known NHP-associated human cases of Marburg and Ebola virus disease have resulted from presumed exposure to wild or recently imported animals.
The Marburg virus and the Ebola virus are non-lethal filoviruses.
Filoviruses cause flu-like symptoms and are considered nonlethal to humans and NHPs.

All known NHP-associated human cases of Marburg and Ebola virus disease have resulted from presumed exposure to wild or recently imported animals.

191

Which of the following would NOT be acceptable methods of euthanasia for amphibians?

Intracoelomic overdose of pentobarbital sodium
Water bath with an overdose of MS-222
CO2 induced asphyxia
Double pithing followed by decapitation

CO2 induced asphyxia

192

Which of the following is NOT a valid statement with regard to survival surgery in amphibians?

Chlorhexidine has been reported to be a safe and effective skin disinfectant when used sparingly.
Amphibian skin should be kept moist throughout the surgical procedure.
Major survival surgery requires the use of clean but not sterile instruments.
Pre-operative preparation can be compared to prep procedures for mammalian eye surgery.

Major survival surgery requires the use of clean but not sterile instruments.

193

Because the skin is a primary respiratory organ for most amphibians, they should be kept immersed in fresh water until they have recovered from general anesthesia.

True
False

False

194

Which of the following is NOT an acceptable general anesthestic in amphibians?

Buffered benzocaine HCl dissolved in a water bath
Controlled hypothermia
MS 222 injected into the dorsal lymph sac
Halothane bubbled through a water bath

Controlled hypothermia

195

Which of the following is a distinctive characteristic of a neotenic species of amphibian?

An adult has nucleated red blood cells.
An adult male fertilizes an adult female’s eggs outside the body.
An adult has external gills.
An adult has a three-chambered heart.
An adult is unable to concentrate urine.
None of the above

An adult has external gills.

196

Which hazard is not a potential occupational health concern when working with amphibians?

Electrical shock
Toxin exposure
Salmonellosis
Mycobacterial infection
Rabies

Rabies

197

Which of the following are accurate statements about housing and husbandry of amphibians?

Room temperature generally should be kept within a range of 70-75 degrees C.
Toads may be maintained on a diet of alfalfa pellets.
As a rule of thumb, if one has experience with keeping Xenopus spp., one will have success with any species of amphibian.
Cages should be sanitized using an appropriate detergent and disinfectant at least twice weekly.
At least 10 fresh air changes should be provided in rooms housing amphibians.
None of the above

None of the Above

198

Under which of the following conditions would a long quarantine period be MOST desirable?

Adding new, wild-caught leopard frogs from a commercial dealer to a research colony.
Adding new African clawed frogs from an in-house breeding colony to an in-house research colony.
Adding new, wild-caught leopard frogs from a commercial dealer to a colony to be killed and preserved for student dissection.
Adding new axolotls from an in-house breeding colony to an in-house research colony.
Adding new axolotls to a research colony from the same breeding commercial breeding colony used for the other research colony members.

Adding new, wild-caught leopard frogs from a commercial dealer to a research colony.

199

Which of the following agencies regulates the collection or research use of amphibians in the United States?

State fish & game department
National Wildlife Federation (NWF)
Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

State fish & game department

200

Which of the following statements accurately refer to current knowledge of amphibian pain perception?

Amphibians have a well-developed limbic cortex.
Amphibian pain perception is clearly very similar to that of mammals.
Salamanders do not feel pain.
There is good evidence that amphibians experience nociception.

There is good evidence that amphibians experience nociception.

201

Anurans may be said to:
consist of the frogs and toads.
be similar to earthworms.
comprise a single genus.
consist of species that do not produce urine.
All of the above
None of the above

consist of the frogs and toads.

202

Which of the following are characteristic of amphibians?

The skin is a respiratory organ.
Melanin may be found in the liver.
The cloaca serves the urinary and intestinal systems.
Amphibians lack a diaphragm.
Adults are generally carnivorous.
All of the above

All of the above

203

All research amphibians are bred in captivity and are not considered endangered or threatened.

True
False

False

204

Which of the following are true statements?

Wild populations of amphibians are robust.
State fish and game laws may govern collection of wild specimens of frogs.
Commercial dealers provide only captive-bred animals.
Xenopus spp. are available from captive-bred colonies.
The US Department of the Interior has jurisdiction over interstate sales of amphibians.

The US Department of the Interior has jurisdiction over interstate sales of amphibians.

Xenopus spp. are available from captive-bred colonies.

State fish and game laws may govern collection of wild specimens of frogs.

205

Which of the following represent valid routes for injections?

Intramuscular
Intracoelomic
Into the dorsal lymph sac
All of the above
None of the above

All of the above

206

How much fluid can be given to a ferret in a single dose when administering the medication using oral gavage?

up to 10 ml
up to 8 ml
up to 5 ml
up to 2 ml

up to 5mL

207

Which of the following statements is true?

Individual identification of ferrets is required by the Animal Welfare Act.
Tattooing ferrets is an easily performed procedure but is not often used because of the time and expense.
As in dogs, a collar is a frequently used form of identification for ferrets.
The best method of identification for ferrets is either an ear tag or microchip.

The best method of identification for ferrets is either an ear tag or microchip.

208

What is usually the correct size endotracheal tube for an adult ferret?

3-4 mm
1-2 mm
0.5-1 mm
2-3 mm

2-3 mm

209

Which of the following statements is true?

Record a ferret’s temperature after performing other procedures as temperature tends to drop in response to being handled.
A ferret has excellent thermoregulation so it doesn’t matter when you record the ferret’s temperature.
Record a ferret’s temperature before performing a procedure as overexcitement may cause a temporary elevation in body temperature,
It is important to record a ferret’s temperature before and after the procedure to see if there is any drop in temperature.

Record a ferret’s temperature before performing a procedure as overexcitement may cause a temporary elevation in body temperature,

210

A ferret has recovered from anesthesia when it can:

maintain its core body temperature, even if not ambulating.
ambulate and urinate.
eat solid food.
ambulate and maintain its core body temperature.

ambulate and maintain its core body temperature.

211

Which of the following statements is true?

Sedatives block the perception of pain.
The slow clearance of many analgesics in ferrets results in the need for decreased frequency of administration.
Ferrets metabolize drugs so rapidly that many anesthetic agents have only a brief duration of effect.
Acepromazine has an analgesic effect.

Ferrets metabolize drugs so rapidly that many anesthetic agents have only a brief duration of effect.

212

Most biochemistry panels can be done with ____ ml or less of blood.

0.5
2.0
1.0
1.5

1.5

213

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is published by:

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, International
National Research Council
Public Health Service

National Research Council

214

What is the scientific name of the research ferret?

Marmota monax
Mustela putorius furo
Dasypus novemcinctus
Mus musculus

Mustela putorius furo

215

In general, how often does a ferret shed its coat?

Monthly
Once a year
Twice a year
Only once in their life after they are weaned
None of the above

Twice a year

216

Ferrets have been helpful in the field of pediatrics by serving as model to study which problem?

Attention deficit disorder
Enuresis
Colic
Birth defects

Birth defects

217

Which attributes characterize the respiratory system of the ferret?

A short trachea and small lungs
A long trachea and large lungs
A long trachea and small lungs
A short trachea and large lungs

A long trachea and large lungs

218

Ferrets have been used as an animal model for SARS in an effort to:

Ferrets have been used as an animal model for SARS in an effort to:

develop a vaccine against the virus.
study the progression of the disease.
study the side effects of anti-viral drugs.
explain why many animals are resistant to the disease.

study the progression of the disease.
study the side effects of anti-viral drugs.
explain why many animals are resistant to the disease.

develop a vaccine against the virus.

219

Which organs are very similar in humans and ferrets?

Lungs and colon
Pancreas and brain
Lungs and stomach
Kidneys and heart

Lungs and stomach

220

Which procedure is taught in medical schools using ferrets?

Defibrillation
Colostomy
Nerve block
Pediatric endotracheal intubation

Pediatric endotracheal intubation

221

Ferrets can be kept in cat cages as long as:

non-aromatic wood chips are used for bedding.
there is no litter box.
J-type food hoppers are used.
the door is close fitting and the bar spaces are narrow.

the door is close fitting and the bar spaces are narrow.

222

Which potential side effect for a drug may be studied using ferrets?

Emesis
Hypertension
Fever production
Immunodeficiency

Emesis