Abdomen contents Flashcards Preview

Theme 1: The Alimentary System > Abdomen contents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen contents Deck (26):
1

Anatomical subdivisions

Right hypochondriac
Epigastric
Left hypochondriac
Right lumbar
Umbilical
Left lumbar
Right inguinal
Hypogastric
Left inguinal

2

Contents of the right upper abdomen

1. Right lobe of liver
2. Gallbladder
3. Duodenum
4. Head of pancreas
5. Hepatic flexure of colon
6. Part of ascending and transverse colon

3

Contents of the left upper abdomen

1. Stomach
2. Spleen
3. Left lobe of liver
4. Body of pancreas
5. Splenic flexure of colon
6. Part of transverse and descending colon

4

Contents of the right lower abdomen

1. Cecum
2. Appendix
3. Ascending colon
4. Small intestine

5

Contents of the left lower abdomen

1. Small intestine
2. Descending colon
3. Sigmoid colon

6

Serous

The outer membrane

Encloses several body cavities

Secretes a lubricating fluid

Outer epithelial layer and inner layer

7

Muscular

Longitudinal or circular

Responsible for movement of lumen contents

8

Mucosal

Inner layer

Lines internal organs or cavities exposed to external environment

Secrete mucus

Also involved in absorption

9

GI tract divisions

Oral cavity

Pharynx

Oesophagus

Stomach

Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)

Large intestine (colon)

10

Teeth

Accessory organs

Assist mechanical digestion

11

Palate

Roof of mouth

Soft palate blocks nasal cavity during swallowing

12

Tongue

Accessory organ

Taste

Assist mixing

Swallowing

13

Salivary glands

Secretion of saliva

Dissolve foods

14

Pharynx

Directs food to oesophagus

Blocks entry to trachea

15

Oesophagus

Muscular tube ~ 25cm long

Posterior to trachea

Upper edge- pharynx

Pierces diaphragm

Opens to stomach

16

Stomach

Gaster

Most dilated part of the alimentary canal

Between oesophagus and small intestine

J-shaped: lies under the diaphragm and under the heart

2 openings, curvatures, surfaces

Mechanical and chemical digestion

17

Stomach anatomy

Cardial orifice- link to oesophagus

Pyloric orifice- link the small intestine

Lesser curvature (superior border)

Greater curvature (inferior border)

Pyloric and cardial sphincters

3- layered muscles: longitudinal, circular, oblique

18

Small intestine

Convoluted tube

Pylorus of stomach to ileocaecal junction

5 meters in length

Subdivided into: duodenum, jejunum, ileum

Where digestion and absorption take place

19

Dueodenum

'12 fingers' or 20-25 cm long

Retroperitoneal

C shaped 4 parts: superior, descending, horizontal, ascending

Where the duct from the pancreas and gallbladder open

Ends at the duodenal- jejunal flexure

20

Jejunum/ ileum

At least 3m long from duodenal- jejunal flxure to ileocaecal junction

Site of absoprtion: large surface area, folds, villi, microvilli

Motility: one attached and one free edge

21

Large intestine

Terminal division of the GI tract from ileum to anus

1.5m long, greater cross section compared to small

M-shaped 4 parts: ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

Ascending/ desscending are retroperitoneal

Absorption of water form faeces

Rectum/ anus- sphincter cose outside world except when defecating

22

Foregut blood/ nerves/ lymph

Artery: celiac
Vein: portal
Lymph: celiac nodes
Symp: celiac ganglia
Parasymp: vagus

23

Midgut blood/ nerves/ lymph

Artery: sup mesenteric
Vein: sup mesenteric
Lymph: sup mesenteric nodes
Symp: sup mesenteric ganglia
Parasymp: vagus

24

Hindgut blood/ nerves/ lymph

Artery: inf mesenteric
Vein: inf mesenteric
Lymph: inf mesenteric nodes
Symp: inf mesenteric ganglia
Parasymp: pelvic splanchnic

25

Branches of sup mesenteric

Distal part duodenum to proximal 2/3 transverse colon

Jejunal and ileal branches

Middle colic

Right colic

Ileocaecal

26

Branches of inf mesenteric

Distal 1/3 transverse colon to half way down anal canal

Left colic

Sigmoid

Superior rectal