Malnutrition Flashcards Preview

Theme 1: The Alimentary System > Malnutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malnutrition Deck (16):
1

Malnutrition definition

State in which a deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins and minerals causes measurable adverse effects on body composition, function or clinical outcome

2

Prevalence of malnutrition globally

500 million people affected globally by malnutrition

3

Marasmus

Form of severe malnutrition characterised by protein deficiency

Can occur in anyone with severe malnutrition but usually children

Muscular wasting and loss of subcutaneous fats

4

Kwashiorkor

Protein deficiency with adequate energy intake

Leads to oedema and ascites

5

Prevalence of malnutrition UK

3 million people in Britain at ant one time

Community 10%
Sheltered housing and elderly 14%
Hospital outpatients 20%
Hospital inpatients 30%
Children in hospitals up to 14%

6

Mechanism of malnutrition

Inadequate intake

Impaired nutrient digestion processing

Excess losses

Altered requirements

7

Impaired nutrient digestion and processing

Dysfunction of
- stomach
- intestine
- pancreas
- liver

8

Excess losses

Vomiting

NG tube drainage

Diarrhoea

Surgical drains

Fistulae

Stomas

9

Altered requirements

Increased metabolic demands
- inflammation
- cancer
- wounds
- burns
- brain injury

10

Impact of malnutrition in healthy people

Decreased skeletal muscle mass and function day 5

18% loss of mass leads to physiological disturbance
- cardiac 45% reduction in CO
- respiratory/ diaphragmatic muscle mass and contractility
- gut and immune function

Approximately 40% weight loss is fatal

11

Cost of malnutrition- population

Attend GP more often

Admitted to hospital more frequently

Stay on wards for longer

Succumb to infections

Get admitted to long term care

Die

12

How hospitals cause malnutrition

Inadequate/ unpalatable/ unsuitable food

Can't reach food/ feed themselves

Altered taste/ poor appetite

NBM

Starved for Ix

Starved before and after surgery

13

Medical causes of inadequate intake

Poor diet

Poor appetite/ anorexia/ taste disturbances

Nil by mouth

Pain/ nausea

Dysphagia

Depression

Physical disability and inability to feed self

Unconscioesness

14

Environmental causes of inadequate intake

Inadequate food quality

Inadequate food availability outside the reach of elderly or physically incapacitated patients

No protected meal times

Inadequate training and knowledge of medical and nursing staff

15

Screening

Step 1: BMI score
Step 2: weight loss score
Step 3: acute disease effect score
=
Step 4: overall risk of malnutrition

16

Actions taken

Step 5: management guidlines