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Flashcards in Abdominal 2016 Prac Deck (50):
1

The adult liver is considered to be enlarged after the AP diameter exceeds what
measurement?

15cm

2

Carcinoma of the prostate gland most commonly develops in what zone of the
prostate?

Peripheral

3

What is the equation required to calculate the volume of the bladder?

L x W x H x 0.52

4

Name the two (2) types of ascites

transudate & exudate

5

A decrease in haematocrit is consistent with the development of what abdominal wall
pathology?

abdominal wall hematoma

6

A 46 year old female patient presents to the ultrasound department, complaining of
right flank pain and dysuria. Upon ultrasound investigation a generalised swelling of the kidney is demonstrated and the medullary pyramids appear well defined. This is most suspicious of which pathology?

Pyelonephritis

7

The thickness of a normal gallbladder wall should NOT exceed what measurement?

3mm

8

What is the most common location for a spenunculus?

Just medial to the splenic hilum

9

The splenic artery is a branch of what vascular structure?

Celiac axis

10

What is the name given to the sensitivity test of the gallbladder where probe pressure is applied and causes a pain response?

positive murphy's sign

11

What verbal grading of hydronephrosis would the, ‘Bear Claw effect,’ describe?

moderate

12

Define the term Intussusception.

Is the inversion of one portion of the intestine within another

13

What is the most common complication of acute pancreatitis?

Pseudocyst

14

Name two (2) different peritoneal spaces in which free fluid will accumulate

Morrison’s pouch, rectouterine pouch (pouch of douglas), subphrenic space

15

Define the term Lipoma

A neoplasm consisting of adipose tissue

16

What does the acronym H.A.U.L stand for?

Hematoma
Ascites
Urinoma
Lymphocele

17

A rounded lymph node that does not demonstrate an echogenic hilus and measures 13mm in short axis is more likely to be benign or malignant?

Maligant

18

What is omental cake?

Is an abnormally thickened greater ometum

19

Name two (2) LFT’s.

Bilirubin, Albumin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, prothrombin time

20

What is the name of the recess located between the right kidney and the right liver?

Morrison’s pouch

21

What is considered the upper limit measurement for a portal vein?

12-15mm

22

What is another name for the pancreatic duct?

Duct of Wirsung

23

What ultrasonic instrumentation would you initiate to visualize ureteric jets?

Power Doppler

24

What is a pseudoaneurysm?

Is a false aneurysm, does not contain 3 layers, rather it is a dilation of the artery wall confined to 2 layers, caused by trauma to the artery

25

Name two (2) ultrasound controls that will decrease the appearance of artefactual
echoes seen within the IVC.

Time gain compensation, Tissue Harmonic Imaging

26

What sort of a reflector is the diaphragm?

Specular reflector

27

What diameter must a AAA measure, to be considered for surgical opinion?

4-5cm in diameter

28

Name the tongue-like anatomical variant of the right lobe of the liver that is seen as
an inferior projection near the right kidney.

Reidels lobe

29

What is the name given to the technique, whereby the patient is requested to,
‘bear down,’ to raise their intra-abdominal pressure?

Valsva manoeuvre

30

The rectus abdominis muscles are located either side of what fibrous structure?

Linear alba

31

What does the acronym F.A.S.T stand for in the FAST Scan?

Focussed assessment in sonography trauma

32

Name the two different peritoneal membranes.

Visceral & parietal

33

What is a paracentesis?

Is the therapeutic or diagnostic drainage of acidic fluid from the peritoneal space

34

Define a urinoma

Is an encapsulated collection of urine

35

What is the most anterior portion of the pancreas?

Body

36

What is another name for segment one (1) of the liver?

Caudate lobe

37

Name the two major zones of the prostate gland.

Peripheral (70%) & central (25%)

38

What is the pathological name for the separation of the layers of the aortic wall by
blood or haemorrhage which is displayed sonographically as a linear echogenic flap
within the arterial lumen?

Aortic dissection

39

What is the most common malignant tumour of the urinary bladder?

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

40

What is hepatofugal flow?

Is blood flow in a vessel travelling away from the liver

41

What is a bladder diverticulum?

Is an outpouching of the bladder wall due to weakness in the bladder wall

42

What is BPH?

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

43

Which vessel is located directly posterior to the pancreatic body and is surrounded
by an echogenic ring on ultrasound?

Super mesenteric artery

44

What does Post Prandial Mean?

After eating

45

What is the name of the blood marker used to diagnose prostatic cancer?

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

46

What is the name of an enlarged spleen?

Splenomegaly

47

Crohn’s Disease primarily affects young adults and affects what anatomic region?

Ileum

48

Which anatomical location is utilized to test for rebound tenderness of appendicitis?

LRQ of abdomen

49

What is a porcelain gallbladder?

Is the calcification of the GB wall

50

The diameter of a normal adult appendix should not exceed what measurement?

<6mm from outer to outer wall