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Flashcards in Abdominal Prac/Mock Exam Deck (59):
1

What plane is perpendicular to both the sagittal and transverse planes?

The coronal Plane

2

When viewing an image obtained in the coronal plane, where is the patient’s head relative to the displayed image?

Left Side

3

Which term can also be used to describe the sonographer’s preliminary report?

Technical Impressions

4

Which bilaterally paired flat muscles are the innermost of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?

Transversus Abdominis

5

Which of the diaphragmatic crura is larger and longer?

Right Crus: tendinous structure extends from diaphragm

6

In addition to a falling haematocrit, what is another clinical indication of a hematoma?

Ecchymosis: hematoma or a bruise

7

What condition presents with anechoic fluid areas demonstrated on one or both sides of the chest superior to the diaphragm?

Pleural Effusion

8

How can a sonographer obtain better near field images of the abdominal wall?

Use a Stand Off Pad or add more gel for an Acoustic Window

9

Which peritoneal layer lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity?

Parietal

10

Which channel communicates between the Supracolic & Infracolic Compartments?

Paracolic Gutters

11

Which ascites is characterized by a high concentration of protein, cells, or solid material derived from cells?

Exudative

12

What term describes a large fluid collection observed when scanning the abdomen of a patient with cardiac disease?

Ascites

13

What is an extrahepatic anechoic collection of bile located within the peritoneal cavity called?

Biloma

14

What term describes thickening of the greater omentum caused by malignant infiltration?

Omental Caking

15

Which peritoneal space is located posterior to the bladder and anterior to the uterus?

Uterovesicle Space

16

What happens to the normal aorta as it progresses inferiorly?

Diameter decreases

17

What instrumentation adjustment can help remove artefact echoes that may appear in the lumen of the abdominal aorta?

Decrease Time Gain Compensation (TGC)

18

The anteroposterior (AP) measurements of the aorta are made from which scanning plane?

Longitudinal

19

What type of pressure describes the normal venous system: high, medium or low?

Low

20

The Superior Mesenteric Vein empties into which vein?

Portal Vein

21

What is the most common type of splanchnic artery aneurysm?

Splenic

22

What is the most common location of aneurysms associated with the continuation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

Iliac artery

23

Which vessel lies posterior to the bile duct and anterior to the Portal Vein?

Hepatic artery

24

What disease begins as fibro-fatty plaque on the intima of large arteries?

Atherosclerosis

25

What term defines the inner wall layer of an artery and vein?

Tunica Intima

26

What structure along with the left hepatic vein seperates the left hepatic lobe from the caudate lobe?

Ligamentum Venosum Fissure

27

What seperates the intrahepatic right and left lobes?

Main Lobar Fissure

28

Porta hepatis (Portal Triad) contains the Portal Vein, Hepatic Artery and what other structure?

Common Hepatic Duct

29

Which vessel supplies the liver with oxygen-rich blood?

Portal Vein

30

What is the term that describes embryonic production of blood cells?

Hemopoiesis

31

Fatty infiltration disease has the same echo appearance as which pathology?

Cirrhosis

32

What is the most common primary liver malignancy in an adult?

Hepatoma

33

Which vessels are used to delineate the right and left lobes, the right posterior and right anterior segments and the left medial and left lateral segments?

Hepatic Veins

34

What area is carefully scanned on a follow up examination on a patient with a history of cavernous transformation?

Porta Hepatis

35

What Doppler signal (Hepatopetal or Hepatofugal) would you expect in the portal vein of a patient with portal hypertension?

Hepatofugal

36

What vascular tumour in the liver is composed of blood vessel cells with a nonspecific sonographic appearance?

Hemangioma

37

What two ducts unit to form the common bile duct before it enters the duodenum?

Cystic Duct & Common Hepatic Duct

38

Which variant presents with a kinked or folded back fundus?

Phrygian Cap

39

What is the likely cause for echoes originiating from within the gallbladder with acoustic shadows?

Cholelithiasis

40

What vessel supplies the gallbladder with blood?

Cystic Artery

41

With a normally functioning gallbladder, what is stimulated by ingesting a fatty meal?

Contraction

42

What is a diagnostic explanation for a 40 year old woman with right upper quadrant pain, mild jaundice and elevated alkaline phosphatase?

Cholelithiasis

43

What structure does the CBD join prior to terminating at the major duodenal papilla?

Pancreatic Duct

44

What type of anomaly is the annular pancreas?

Congenital Anomaly

45

With reference to the pancreas what type of gland secretes its products into blood or cellular tissue?

Endocrine Gland

46

Locating the gastroduodenal artery helps identify what portion of the pancreas?

Pancreatic Head

47

What vessel courses to the patients right and is located posterior to the pancreas?

Splenic Vein

48

What is the most common cause of a pancreatic pseudocyst in an adult patient?

Acute Pancreatitis

49

When is the spleen considered to be enlarged?

Length exceeds 13cm

50

Crohn’s disease primarily affects young adults and affects what anatomic region?

Ileum

51

In the presence of a horseshoe kidney, what anomaly may be simulated?

Lymphadenopathy

52

Describe posterior urethral valve?

Dilated bladder and elongated prostatic urethra. Key hole appearance

53

Which urinary bladder anomaly is sometimes described as a cyst within a cyst?

Ectopic Ureterocele

54

What pathology is best demonstrated by use of Doppler for evaluating ureteral jets?

Ureteral obstruction with unilateral calculi

55

What is the most common malignant tumour of the urinary bladder?

Transitional cell carcinoma

56

What is the best indicating marker for diagnosing prostate cancer?

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

57

Which adrenal hormone regulates electrolyte concentration?

Aldosterone

58

What echo pattern is usually seen with primary malignant nodes like those seen with lymphoma?

Round shaped, short axis greater than 1cm and hypoechoic to anechoic

59

What is the most significant clinical implication of an elevated serum creatinine?

50% plus nephron destruction or renal insufficiency