Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Deck (11)
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1
Q

What is an aneurysm?

A

Permanent abnormal dilatation of all 3 layers of arterial wall

More than 50% of normal diameter

2
Q

What are the layers of the artery wall?

A

Tunica intima

  • inner layer
  • elastic membrane
  • smooth endothelium

Tunica media

  • middle layer
  • smooth muscle

Tunica adventitia

  • outer layer
  • connective tissue
  • collagen + elastic fibres
3
Q

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

A

Dilatation of the abdominal aorta over 3cm

4
Q

Risk factors of AAA

A
Atherosclerosis 
Genetics
Trauma 
Smoking 
Male 
Connective tissue disorder
5
Q

Clinical features of AAA

A

Most are asymptomatic

Abdominal pain
Back pain

O/E:

  • pulsatile mass = normal
  • expansile mass = concerning
6
Q

Screening for AAA

A

Men 65+

60 + connective tissue disorder

60+ family history

7
Q

Medical management for AAA

A
  1. 0 -4,4cm = yearly ultrasound
  2. 5 - 5.5cm = 6 monthly ultrasound

Smoking cessation
Weight loss
Statin + aspirin
Blood pressure control

8
Q

Surgical management for AAA

A

Open repair
- laparotomy

EVAR
- graft via femoral arteries

9
Q

Clinical features of AAA rupture

A

Abdominal pain
Back pain
Syncope

Haemodynamically compromised
Pulsatile abdominal mass

10
Q

Management of ruptured AAA

A
High flow O2
IV access (large bore cannula x2)
Urgent bloods 
- FBC
- U&Es 
- clotting 
- crossmatch 

Treat for shock

11
Q

When is surgery considered for an AAA?

A

Considered

  • AAA > 5.5cm
  • AAA expanding > 1cm a year
  • symptomatic AAA