Peripheral Arterial disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Peripheral Arterial disease Deck (7)
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1
Q

What is peripheral arterial disease?

A

Atherosclerosis of arteries in the limbs

2
Q

How does atherosclerosis occur?

A

Accumulation of intracellular + extracellular lipid in the intima and media of arteries

Early changes

  • proliferation of smooth muscle cells
  • accumulation of foam cells
  • extracellular lipid

Later changes

  • fibrosis
  • necrosis
  • cholesterol clefts
  • disruption of internal elastic lamina
  • damage extends into media
3
Q

Risk factors of PAD

A

Modifiable

  • hypertension
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • smoking

Non-modifiable

  • male
  • family history
4
Q

What is the Fontaine classification?

A

Clinical classification of presentation of PAD

I - asymptomatic
IIa - mild claudication 
IIb - moderate-severe claudication 
III - ischaemic rest pain 
IV - ulceration or gangrene
5
Q

What is the Rutherford classification?

A

Clinical classification of presentation of PAD

0 - asymptomatic
Ia - mild claudication 
Ib - moderate claudication 
Ic - severe claudication 
II - ischaemic rest pain 
III - minor tissue loss 
IV - ulceration or gangrene
6
Q

Investigations for suspected PAD

A

Bloods

  • FBC
  • LFT
  • U&Es
  • cholesterol

BM

ABPI

Duplex arterial ultrasound

7
Q

What is ABPI?

A

Ankle brachial pressure index

Method

  • take lying brachial blood pressure
  • using doppler take ankle blood pressure (dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial - use highest)

ankle pressure / brachial pressure

1-1.2 = normal 
<1 = arterial disease