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Flashcards in Abdominal organs Deck (38)
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1

What is the M/C positional anomaly of the gallbladder?

Intrahepatic gallbladder (lies between the right and left lobes of the liver)

2

What are some normal gallbladder variants?

a. phrygian cap
b. double GB
c. left-sided GB
d. intrahepatic GB
e. agenesis of GB
f. choledocal cyst/choledochocele
g. hypoplasia and atresia of biliary tree
h. hourglass GB

3

What is the classical triad associated with choledocal cyst?

Present in 19-60%
1) upper abdominal pain
2) abdominal mass
3) jaundice

4

What is the M/C/C of acute cholecystitis?

gallstones (90-95%)

5

Who does acute cholecystits most commonly occur in?

females

6

What's the M/C/C of a shrunken GB?

chronic cholecystitis

7

What is the etiology of chronic cholecystitis?

Prolonged inflammation d/t intermittent obstruction of the cystic duct or infundibulum.

8

What are the radiographic signs for gas filled fissures within the stone?

Mercedes Benz sign & crow's feet

9

What is the difference btwn pigmented and cholesterol stones in terms of calcification?

Pigmented stones --> central calcification

Cholesterol stones --> peripheral calcification

10

Brown pigmented stones are M/C d/to?

E. coli

11

Patients with emphysematous cholecystitis occur commonly in which patient pop'n?

Diabetics

12

Which gender is more likely to develop emphysematous cholecystitis?

males (70-80%)

13

Gallstone ileus is M/C seen in which demographics?

Female (8:1), obese, elderly

14

What is strawberry GB?

Cholesterolosis =
Small, multiple cholesterol polyp. They have no malignant potential.

15

Small diverticuli found in the mucosa wall of the gallbladder are called?

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

16

What are Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses associated with?

Adenomyomatosis

(smooth elevated or sessile mass found in the fundus of the GB d/t hyperplastic cholesterol)

17

What % of porcelain gallbladders are associated with gallstones?

90%

18

What % of porcelain gallbladders are associated with carcinoma?

10-20% (some say 60%)

19

What is the M/C/C of milk of calcium bile?

Obstruction of cystic duct (m/c by a calculus)

20

What is the M/C primary carcinoma of the gallbladder?

Adenocarcinoma

21

What is the M/C type of cholangiocarcinoma (malignant neoplasm of the bile duct)?

Adenocarcinoma

22

Where are benign neoplasms most likely to be located in the bile duct?

distally (75%)

23

What is the M/C benign bile duct neoplasm?

Papilloma (M/C multiple) & adenoma (M/C single)

24

Which tumor arises at the junction of the R and L hepatic ducts?

Klatskin's tumor

25

What is the 2nd M/C primary malignant tumor of the liver?

Klatskin's tumor

26

What is Caroli's disease?

Familial cause - multifocal saccular dilatations of the INTRAHEPATIC bile ducts.
Classified as a type V choledochal cyst.

27

What is Sclerosing Cholangitis?

Idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting the biliary tree resulting in multiple strictures and eventual cirrhosis.

28

What is Mirizzi syndrome?

Extrinsic compression of an extra-hepatic billiary duct from one or more calculi within the cystic duct or gallbladder.

29

What is a choledochocele?

Cystic dilatation of the intraduodenal portion of the common bile duct in the region of the ampulla of Vater.

30

What common normal variant presents as an elongated/extension of the right lower lobe of the liver?

Riedel's lobe

31

What are 2 types of jaundice?

Non-obstructive = d/t overproduction or lack of liver to excrete the bile.

Obstructive = d/t blockage of flow of bile out of the liver.

32

What are 3 causes of portal hypertension?

1. Block in the intrahepatic portal vein
2. Increased bloodflow to the liver
3. Heart failure causing venous hypertension

33

What is Budd-Chiari syndrome?

Thrombotic or non-thrombotic obstruction of the hepatic venous outflow -- characterized by hepatomegaly, ascites, and abdominal pain.

34

What is the M/C benign liver neoplasm?

Hemangioma

35

What is the gold standard imaging modality for a liver hemangioma?

Angiography

36

How does a liver hemangioma present on US?

Hyperechoic mass in 80%

37

Hepatocellular carcinoma is more commonly seen patients with what other liver conditions?

Cirrhotic livers or chronic hepatitis

38

What is the M/C anomaly of the pancreas?

Ectopic pancreatic tissue