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S&F IV: Exam One > Abdominal Wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdominal Wall Deck (39):
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Linea Alba

Tendinous raphe extending along the midline of the abdomen from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis; formed by fusion of the anterolateral abdominal muscles

1

Linea semilunares

CT along the lateral borders of rectus abdominis; extends from 9th costal cartilage to the pubic tubercle

2

Linea transversae

CT within rectus abdominis muscles; produces "washboard" appearance and allows control over the degree of flexion of the abdomen

3

Structures of Right Upper Quadrant

Stomach, duodenum, pylorus

Ascending colon, transverse colon

Liver, right lobe

Gallbladder

Pancreas

4

Contents of Left Upper Quadrant

Stomach, jejunum, ileum

Transverse colon, descending colon

Liver

Spleen

Pancreas (body)

5

Contents of Right Lower Quadrant

Illeum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon

Spermatic cord, ureter

6

Contents of left lower quadrant

Descending colon, ureter, spermatic cord

7

McBurney's Point

Found in the umbilical region, 1/3 of the way up from the right ASIS and umbilicus

*Pain in this region is linked to acute appendicitis

8

Acute cholecystitis pain region

Right hypochondral region

9

Layers of abdominal wall pierced by puncture wound

1. Skin

2. Superficial fascia (Camper's and Scarpa's)

3. Deep investing fascia covering muscles

(3b.) Linea alba (if a midline puncture)

4. Transversalis fascia

5. Extraperitoneal fat

6. Parietal peritoneum

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Camper's Fascia

Contains superficial epigastric vessels and continues as superficial fascia of thigh

*Females=extends into labia majora
Males=Replaced by dartos muscle

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Scarpa's Fascia

Deeper layer of superficial fascia that continues in the perineum and scrotum as Colle's Fascia

12

External Oblique

O-Ribs 5-12

I-Linea alba, pubic tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest
*Forms inguinal ligament anteriorly

X- Flex/rotate trunk; compress and support abdominal viscera

N- T7-T11; T12

13

Internal Oblique

O- Thoracocolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament

I- Ribs 10-12, linea alba, pubis (via conjoint tendon)

X- Flex/rotate trunk; compress and support abdominal viscera

N-T7-T11, T12, L1

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Transversus abdominis

O-Thoracocolumbar fascia, iliac crest, ribs 7-12, inguinal ligament

I- linea alba, pubic crest (via conjoint tendon)

X- Flex/rotate trunk; compress and support abdominal viscera

N-T7-T11, T12, L1

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Rectus abdominis

O- Pubic symphysis and crest

I- Xiphoid process and ribs 5-7

X-Flex trunk and compresses abdominal viscera

N- T7-T11

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Pyramidalis

O-Anterior surface of pubis

I- Linea alba below umbilicus

X- Tenses linea alba

N-T12, L1

*Not always present

17

Cremaster muscle

O-Inguinal ligament (continuation of I.O.)

I-Tubercle and crest of pubis

X- Elevates testes by decreasing surface area

N- L1, L2 via genital branch of genitofemoral nerve

18

Arcuate line

Change in fascia contributing to the anterior and posterior layers of the rectus sheath containing the epigastric vessels and terminal ends of nerves; occurs below the umbilicus midway to the pubis

19

Rectus sheath

Superior to arcuate line: Anterior= E.O. and 1/2 of I.O. aponeurosis
Posterior= 1/2 I.O. and Transversus abdominus aponeurosis

Inferior to arcuate line: Anterior: E.O., I.O. and Transversus abdominus aponeurosis

Posterior: None

20

Abdominal Wall Nerves

All stem from the ventral rami of spinal nerves

Toracoabdominal: T7-T11

Subcostal: T12

Iliohypogastric: L1

Ilioinguinal: L1

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Superior Epigastric Artery

Stems from the internal thoracic and supplies the upper rectus abdominis and wall

*Anastomoses w/ inferior epigastric

22

Umbilical Region innervation

T10

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Musculophrenic Artery

Stems from the internal thoracic and supplies the anterior diaphragm and intercostal spaces 7-10

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Posterior Intercostal Artery

Stems from the descending aorta and supplies the intercostal muscles, spinal cord, and skin overlying the intercostals

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Superficial epigastric artery

Stems from the femoral artery and supplies the superficial skin of the lower abdomen

26

Superficial circumflex artery

Stems from the femoral and supplies the superficial fascia of the abdomen and the thigh

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Deep circumflex illiac artery

Stems from the external illiac and supplies the illiacus muscle and the inner abdominal wall

28

Inferior epigastric artery

Stems from the external illiac and supplies the lower rectus abodminis and abdominal wall

*Anastomes w/ superior epigastric artery

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Cremasteric Artery

Stems from the inferior epigastric and supplies the cremaster muscle and the coverings of the spermatic cord

30

Median umbilical fold

Connects the obliterated urachus/allantoic duct

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Medial umbilical folds

Contains the oblieterated umbilical arteries

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Lateral umiblical folds

Contains the inferior epigastric vessels

*Will bleed out if lacerated

33

Caput Medusae

Varicose veins caused by cirrhosis, hepatitis, or portal hypertension

*Superficial epigastric and paraumbilical veins are dilated

34

Aortic Coarction

Narrowing of the aorta that occurs at the site of the ductus arteriosus

*Lower body still receives blood via the epigastric anastomoses

35

Hydrocele

Collection of fluid in the testes due to persistent processus vaginalis

*Cannula pierces Skin, dartos muscle, Colle's fascia, external spermatic fascia, cremaster muscle/fascia, internal spermatic fascia, and parietal layer of tunica vaginalis to drain

36

Tunica albugina

Layer that covers the balls; lies immediately deep to the visceral tunica vaginalis

37

Spigelian Hernia

Weakness along the linea semilunares that occurs @ ~arcuate line where the rectus abdominus is in direct contact w/ the transversalis fascia

*Occurs in obese people >40

38

Most common cause of monogenic obesity

MCR-4 mutation