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USF Summer Semester 2017 > ABGs Tutorial > Flashcards

Flashcards in ABGs Tutorial Deck (52):
1

pH ranges from ___ to ___

7.35 to 7.45

2

pH for acidosis

<7.35

3

pH for alkalosis

>7.45

4

normal range for PCO2?

35-45 mmHg

5

is PCO2 acid or base?

acid

6

normal range for PO2?

80-100 mmHg

7

normal range for HCO3?

22-26 mEq/L

8

is HCO3 acid or base?

base

9

what is ROME?

Respiratory
Opposite (to pH)
Metabolic
Equal (to pH)

10

respiratory acidosis

increased PCO2 (>45 mmHg)
pH <7.35

11

respiratory alkalosis

decreased PCO2 (<35mmHg)
pH>7.45

12

metabolic acidosis

decreased HCO3 (<22 mEq/L)
decreased pH (<7.35)

13

metabolic alkalosis

increased HCO3 (>26 mEq/L)
increased pH (>7.45)

14

Clinical manifestations of respiratory alkalosis (9)

lethargy, lightheadedness, confusion, tachycardia, dysrhythmias related to hypokalemia, n/v, epigastric pain, numbness/tingling of the extremities, hyperventilation (tachypnea)

15

atelectasis

condition characterized by the collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a part of the lungs

16

respiratory acidosis is associated with hypo/hyperventilation?
respiratory alkalosis is associated with hypo/hyperventilation?

hypoventilation
hyperventilation

17

Clinical manifestations of respiratory acidosis (9)
what happens for resp rate?

the respiratory rate and depth increase in an attempt to compensate. The client also experiences headache; restlessness; mental status changes, such as drowsiness and confusion; visual disturbances; diaphoresis; cyanosis as the hypoxia becomes more acute; hyperkalemia; rapid, irregular pulse; and dysrhythmias.

18

what does applying pressure over the puncture site do?

reduces the risk of hematoma formation and damage to the artery

19

DM can lead to...? why?
can potentially lead to what disease?

Metabolic acidosis
by product of fat metabolism are acidotic, potentially leading to the condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis

20

Clinical manifestations of metabolic acidosis (10)

hyperpnea with Kussmaul's respirations; headache; n/v, and diarrhea; fruity-smelling breath resulting from improper fat metabolism; central nervous system depression, including mental dullness, drowsiness, stupor, and coma; twitching; and convulsions. Hyperkalemia

21

what are extrapulmonary causes of respiratory failure? (6)

stroke, sleep apnea, myasthenia gravis, and opioid analgesics, sedatives, and anesthetics

22

what are intrapulmonary causes of respiratory failure? (2)

obstructive lung disease and pneumonia

23

why is the allen test imporant?

ensures collateral circulation to the hand if thrombosis of the radial artery occurs after the puncture

24

what happens if there is failure to determine the presence of adequate collateral circulation?

could result in severe ischemic injury to the hand if damage to the radial artery occurs with arterial puncture.

25

what is Cheyne-Stokes respirations?

rhythmic crescendo and decrescendo of rate and depth, including brief periods of apnea

26

The nurse who is trying to enhance the client's respiratory status for respiratory acidosis should implement what 3 actions?

keep HOB elevated
monitor flow rate of supplemental oxygen
assist client to turn, cough, & breathe deeply

27

which serum level tends to rise with metabolic acidosis? what happens?

potassium
When acidosis is corrected with treatment, the potassium will shift back into the cellular compartment from the bloodstream

28

neutropenia

low WBC count

29

Disorientation and dyspnea

respiratory acidosis

30

Drowsiness, headache, and tachypnea

metabolic acidosis

31

Tachypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias

respiratory alkalosis

32

Decreased respiratory rate and depth

metabolic alkalosis

33

nasogastric suctioning may cause...

metabolic alkalosis (decreasing acid components in stomach)

34

Excess alcohol ingestion and salicylate toxicity may cause?

metabolic acidosis

35

fentanyl is what kind of medication? what can it cause?

opioid
respiratory acidosis

36

tingling and numbness of the fingers, restlessness, and tetany caused by irritability of the central nervous system (CNS) results

alkalosis

37

Guillain-Barré syndrome

neuromuscular disorder in which the client may experience weakening or paralysis of the muscles used for respiration.

38

buffer system

fastest acting system
primary regulator of acid base balance

39

what does buffer do?

change strong acids --> weaker cids
bind acids to neutralize their effects

40

how are rate and depth of breathing regulated?

chemoreceptors in medulla

41

three mechanisms of acid elimination

1. secretion of free H+ into renal tubule
2. combo of H+ with ammonia (NH3) to form ammonium (NH4+)
3. excretion of weak acid

42

to compensate for acidosis, what can the kidneys do?

generate additional bicarbonate & eliminate excess H+, lowering the pH of the urine

43

causes of metabolic acidosis

DKA, renal failure, lactic acidosis, diarrhea, starvation, alcohol drinking

44

causes of metabolic alkalosis

Vomiting, GI suction, bicarb intake, diuretics that cause hypokalemia

45

causes of respiratory acidosis

Depressed ventilation (Hypoventilation), COPD, chest wall deformities

46

causes of respiratory alkalosis

Hyperventilation (e.g. due to anxiety or high altitude)

47

clinical manifestation of both respiratory and metabolic acidosis

CNS depression (headache, lethargy, weakness, confusion)

48

complete compensation

both CO2 and HCO3 are abnormal in same direction
pH is normal

49

partial compensation

both CO2 and HCO3 are abnormal in same direction
pH is outside normal range

50

primary disorder is identified based on what pH?

7.40
pH<7.40 = primary acidosis
pH>7.40 = primary alkalosis

51

combined acidosis

resp & metabolic acidosis
CO2 is high and HCO3 is low

52

combined alkalosis

resp & metabolic alkalosis
CO2 is low and HCO3 is high