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Flashcards in ABNORMAL NON-EPILEPTIC Deck (29)
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1

Intermixed diffuse intermittent theta in the most alert state is normal in__________

young adults

2

T OR F

 

The slower the frequency, the higher the amplitude, and the greater the persistence, the more likely intermittent theta is abnormal.

T

3

WHAT PATTERN?

An abnormal high-amplitude burst of diffuse intermittent

theta in an awake adult following a motor vehicle accident associated with

driving under the influence

4

WHAT PATTERN IS SHOWN?

Generalized monomorphic 5 to 6-Hz theta frequencies

obtained during syncope in a patient undergoing head-up tilt table testing for

neurocardiogenic syncop

5

Background slowing is defined as slowing of the normal posterior background activity to a frequency slower than the normal alpha rhythm frequency of <8 Hz and is an early finding of_________

encephalopathy

6

WHAT PATTERN?

Slowing of the posterior dominant rhythm to 6 Hz. This welldefined

background is too slow even in a 65-year-old man

7

______________appears in bursts of delta that is often high voltage, bisynchronous, and well formed.

Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA)

8

FIRDA is most often associated with encephalopathies of toxic or metabolic origin, although it may also occur with subcortical Lesions such as a____________

deep midline lesion or increased intracranial pressure

9

WHAT PATTERN?

Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity in a 67-year-old

patient with noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Note the slower 1.0- to 1.5-

Hz frequency and cerebral origin verified by eye monitors

10

___________, like FIRDA, is a nonspecific finding in the EEG relative to etiology. OIRDA is demonstrated as a posterior predominant bisynchronous rhythmic delta slowing appearing in bursts

Occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity (OIRDA)

11

OIRDA has been noted to occur in association with ____________epilepsy, but is not an epileptiform abnormality unless intermixed spikes are present

generalized (absence)

12

WHAT PATTERN?

ORIDA in a 6-year-old child with absence epilepsy.

13

Continuous generalized slowing consists of polymorphic delta

activity that is continuous or near-continuous (>80% of the

record) and (at least as importantly)___________

unreactive

14

WHAT IS CHARACTERISTIC?

Continuous irregular 1.5- to 3.0-Hz delta in a 66-year-old man with encephalopathy that was unresponsive. The above example of EEG is representative

of the entire record. No reactivity was noted during the EEG

15

When seen during encephalopathy or coma, low-voltage EEG is typically associated with ______ AND _______

diffuse slowing and poor reactivity to somatosensory stimulatioN

16

WHAT ABNORMALITY?

Low-voltage recording in a patient involved in a motor vehicle accident. The recording was obtained at a sensitivity of 2 μV/mm with no voltage

of >20 μV.

17

A persistent hemispheric difference of _________Hz should be regarded as being abnormal when alpha asymmetry is seen

>1

18

while the right hemisphere is often asymmetrical in respect to voltage, a persistent amplitude asymmetry of _________should be regarded as abnormal

>50%

19

WHICH SIDE IS ABN?

Alpha asymmetry in a patient with an acute right frontoparietal ischemic infarction.

20

WHICH SIDE IS NOT NORMAL?

Focal delta in a 28-year-old patient with right temporal polymorphic delta due to a anterior temporal ganglioglioma. Note the anterior–mid-temporal localization with loss of intermixed faster frequencies

21

WHERE IS THE LESION?

Focal delta in a 28-year-old patient with right temporal polymorphic delta due to a anterior temporal ganglioglioma. Note the anterior–mid-temporal localization with loss of intermixed faster frequencies

22

It consists of an intermittent monomorphic burst of delta frequencies maximal typically in a unilateral temporal derivation.

Temporal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (TIRDA)

23

WHERE IS THE LESION?

There is a brief 2-sec burst of polymorphic delta activity in the posterior temporal-parietal region of the left hemisphere in a 55-year-old patient with a left subcortical white matter lacunar infarction

24

WHERE IS THE LESION

A 75-year-old patient with an acute left frontal ischemic infarct. Note the left regional polymorphic delta that affects the entire hemisphere

25

WHERE IS THE LESION?

A 64-year-old s/p right hemisphere infarct. Over the right

hemisphere, a well-formed alpha rhythm is not present (it is well formed on the

left) and is replaced by polymorphic slow waves (2 to 4 Hz).

26

_________when localized is indicative of an underlying supratentorial lesion affecting the white matter of the ipsilateral hemisphere

Polymorphic delta activity

27

Sleep spindles are initially evident in the first 2 months, and by ________of age are synchronous in normal children

2 years

28

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?

Asymmetry of sleep spindles in a 36-year-old patient with a

right thalamic glioma

29