Flashcards in Abortion Deck (50):
What is the definition of an abortion?
Loss of pregnancy prior to 20 weeks
What percent of all recognized pregnancy end with SAB?
What is a threatened abortion? Is there cervical dilation and/or expulsion of the POC?
vaginal bleeding within the first 20 weeks of gestation, but NOT ending in a spontaneous abortion
No cervical dilation, or expulsion of the POC
What is an inevitable abortion? Is there cervical dilation and/or expulsion of the POC?
Vaginal bleeding with cervical dilation, but no passage of tissue--viable pregnancy unlikely
What is an incomplete abortion? Is there cervical dilation and/or expulsion of the POC?
Vaginal bleeding with cervical dilation and *partial* expulsion of POC
What is a complete abortion? Is there cervical dilation and/or expulsion of the POC?
Vaginal bleeding decreasing, all POC expelled
Cervix is close
What is a missed abortion? Is there cervical dilation and/or expulsion of the POC?
-Fetal death with or without spotting
-No cervical dilation
-Complete retention of POC
-Often proceed to complete SAB in 1-3 weeks
What is a septic abortion? Is there cervical dilation and/or expulsion of the POC?
Threatened, inevitable, or or incomplete abortion with signs of uterine infx
Chromosome abnormalities account for what percent of all SAB?
Losses 2/2 aneuploidy occur when in gestation (early, middle, or late)?
What are the causes for spontaneous abortion, besides chromosomal abnormalities? (5)
True or false: the is often no obvious etiology for many abortions
What causes a septated uterus?
Failure of the obliteration of the septa between the paramesonephric ducts
What are the common signs of a miscarriage?
-Vaginal bleeding and cramping
-Decreased s/sx of pregnancy
How do you diagnose an abortion? (2)
-Quant hCG levels
Gestational sac can be seen at what hCG level? Fetal heart activity
Serum progesterone level below what value is indicative of a failed/abnormal pregnancy?
Less than 5 ng/dL
What are the basic hematological labs that should be obtained with a suspected abortion?
-ABO and Rh status
What is implantation bleeding? Does this cause miscarriages?
Bleeding around the time of implantation--usually do not lead to miscarriages
What is the medical treatment for a suspected miscarriage?
-rhoGAM if Rh
What is the surgical treatment for a miscarriage?
-D and C with suction
-d/c home with Rx for pain meds
What is the treatment for a threatened abortion?
-Pelvic rest (no sex)
What is the treatment for inevitable and incomplete miscarriages? (surgical/medical)
-D and C
What is a D&E? When is it done?
dilation and evacuation--done after 14 weeks (2nd trimester)
How do you follow a complete abortion? (2)
-Follow quant hCG weekly until 0
-TVUS to r/o retained POC
What percent of inevitable and incomplete miscarriages will complete without intervention?
What is the medical treatment for a missed abortion? Surgical?
-D+C or D+E
What is the expectant management with missed abortions?
-Uterus Evacuated if profuse bleeding
What is the work up for septic abortions?
-Obtain vaginal cultures
-Coag studies + usual sepsis procedure
What is the treatment for a septic abortion? (2)
-Prompt surgical evacuation
-IV abx and IVF
What is the most frequently performed gyn procedure? When in gestation is this performed? What is the major complication of this?
What is the medical management of abortions? When in gestation is this safe?
-Up to 49 days gestation
Which has a higher bleeding rate: abortions done through surgical means, or medical means?
In whom is medical abortion not appropriate for? Why?
Unsure f/u, d/t multiple visits, and protracted therapy
What is the definition of recurrent pregnancy loss?
3 or more losses prior to 20 weeks gestation
Do you include ectopic, molar, and biochemical pregnancies in the count of recurrent pregnancy loss?
Cause of recurrent pregnancy loss can be established in what fraction of women?
What are the two major immunologic causes of recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL)?
SLE and APLA
What are the anatomic causes of RPL? (3)
-Congential uterine malformations
Can inherited thrombophilias cause RPL?
What are the endocrine disorders that can cause RPL? (4)
-Luteal phase defect
What is the trend in abortions?
What percent of abortions occur in women who were using a contraceptive method?
What is the most effective contraceptive?
What is the incidence of complications following an abortion?
Risk of maternal death is (__)x more with childbirth than an abortion?
Are there any adverse effect in future pregnancies with an abortion?
How early can ovulation occur post-abortion?
What is happening to the abortion rate in young women? Women aged 40+?
Adolescent abortions decreased
Increased in 40+