Flashcards in Ach: Kidney Deck (18):
What are the functions of the kidney?
1. Remove excess water, salts and metabolites from the blood
2. Return nutrients and select ions to the blood
3. Regulate blood pressure
4. Produce EPO
Where is the kidney located?
Posterior abdominal wall
What are the external components of the kidney?
What is the renal sinus?
Fat filled space containing urinary collection structures
What is the cortex and what does it contain?
The outer 1/2
-glomeruli of cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons
-loops of Henle
-proximal and distal convoluted tubules
What is the medulla and what does it contain?
1. Medullary pyramids
What is the minor calyx?
Collect urine from the renal papilla and coallesce to form the major calyx which unite to form the renal pelvis. Renal pelvis are the dilated portion of the ureter
Describe the arterial blood supply to the kidney.
Branches of abdominal aorta>
enter at hilum>
interlobular arteries (surround the pyramids)>
Describe the venous blood supply to the kidney.
R veins> IVC
L veins receives L gonadal vein> IVC
What are ureters?
Continuous with the renal pelvis
Carry urine into the urinary bladder
What are renal calculi?
Excess oxalate/ca (metabolic problems)>
stay in kidney or pass through renal pelvis to ureter
How do you pass small kidney stone?
Drink large quantity of water
How do you treat large kidney stones?
1. Lithotripsy- sound waves are used to break up stone into smaller pieces which are then excreted.
2. Laproscopid technique
*Larger stones can obstruct calyces or ureters and cause urine to collect.
What is hydronephrosis?
Obstruction of the ureter>
ureter expands to contain the urine>
urine can back up into the renal pelvis/calyces
What are some complications that can occur d/t hydronephrosis?
1. Increased P can compress kidney parenchyma> kidney failure
2. Kidney general floats in abdominal cavity, but it can descend and kind the ureter> obstruction.
What is polycystic kidney disease?
Clusters of fluid-filled cysts develop in the kidney (associated with cystic diseases of other organs (liver)
What sxs are associated with polycystic kidney disease?
1. COMPRESSION of the kidneys> HTN and renal failure
2. back/side pain
3. increase in size of abdomen