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Flashcards in Acid-Base/Electrolytes Deck (64):
1

Which of the following statements is true regarding hemoglobic hypoxia?

a. It is defined as the decreased oxygen bound to hemoglobin or decreased hemoglobin
b. There is a defect in the delivery of oxygen to the blood
c. The PaO2 is decreased
d. Carbon monoxide has less affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen

a. It is defined as the decreased oxygen bound to hemoglobin or decreased hemoglobin

Reference: Stockham and Scott. Pg 583

2

Which of the following is a strong cation in the strong ion difference system?

a. Chloride
b. Bicarbonate
c. Lactate
d. Sodium

d. Sodium

Reference: Stockham and Scott. Pg 586

3

Which of the following is a cause of a titrational metabolic acidosis?

a. Ethylene glycol toxicity
b. Laryngeal paralysis
c. Pneumothorax
d. Fever

a. Ethylene glycol toxicity

Reference: Stockham and Scott. Pg 574

4

Which of the following correctly describes the acid-base disturbance? pH 7.25; pCO2 50 mmHg; HCO3- 35 mmol/L

A) Respiratory acidosis with compensatory metabolic alkalosis
B) Respiratory alkalosis with compensatory metabolic acidosis
C) Metabolic acidosis with compensatory respiratory alkalosis
D) Metabolic alkalosis with compensatory respiratory acidosis

A) Respiratory acidosis with compensatory metabolic alkalosis

Source: Stockham and Scott, pp. 574-578 (2nd ed.).

5

In which of the following conditions/diseases would you expect an animal to have respiratory alkalosis?

A) Pulmonary fibrosis
B) Myasthenia gravis
C) Pneumothorax
D) Gram-negative septicemia

D) Gram-negative septicemia

Source: Stockham and Scott, pp. 575-577 (2nd ed.).

6

Which combination of factors would most likely cause an animal to have paradoxical aciduria?

A) Metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia, and hypovolemia
B) Metabolic alkalosis, hyperchloremia, and hypovolemia
C) Metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia, and hypovolemia
D) Metabolic acidosis, hypochloremia, and hypovolemia

C) Metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia, and hypovolemia

Source: Stockham and Scott, p. 576 (2nd ed.).

7

Hypoventilation causes respiratory acidosis due to which of the following shifts in acids and bases:

a. ↑PCO2 and ↓H+
b. ↑PCO2 and ↑H+
c. ↑HCO3- and ↓H+
d. ↑HCO3- and ↑H+

b. ↑PCO2 and ↑H+

Stockham, S. L., Scott, M. A. (2008), Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, pg. 563

8

Carbon dioxide (CO2) produced in the tissues through a variety of metabolic pathways is carried in the blood in which of the following forms:

a. Dissolved, estimated as PvCO2
b. As HCO3- in erythrocytes
c. As H2CO3 bound to albumin
d. A and B
e. A, B, andC

d. A and B
a. Dissolved, estimated as PvCO2
b. As HCO3- in erythrocytes

Stockham, S. L., Scott, M. A. (2008), Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, pg. 566

9

Which of the following is not considered a weak anion (in equilibria in physiologic fluids):

a. Bicarbonate
b. Phosphate
c. Lactate
d. Carbonate

c. Lactate

Stockham, S. L., Scott, M. A. (2008), Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, pg. 586

10

A metabolic acidosis with appropriate respiratory compensation is characterized by which one of the following?

A. High PaCo2; high HCO3-
B. High PaCo2; low HCO3-
C. Low PaCo2; high HCO3-
D. Low PaCo2; low HCO3-

D. Low PaCo2; low HCO3-

11

Which one of the following is true regarding base excess?

A. Base excess is the amount of base that needs to be added to return the sample to a normal pH.
B. Base excess is only affected by volatile acids such as CO2.
C. Base excess reflects only the respiratory component of an acid-base disturbance.
D. Base excess reflects only the metabolic component of an acid-base disturbance.

D. Base excess reflects only the metabolic component of an acid-base disturbance.

12

Respiratory compensation for metabolic disorders occurs relatively __________; renal compensation for respiratory disorders occurs relatively _________.

A. Quickly; quickly
B. Quickly; slowly
C. Slowly; quickly
D. Slowly; slowly

B. Quickly; slowly

13

A right shifted Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is characterized by which of the following?

a. Increased [H+], decreased [2,3 DPG], increased temperature and increased PCO2
b. Decreased [H+], increased [2,3 DPG], increased temperature and increased PCO2
c. Increased [H+], increased [2,3 DPG], increased temperature and increased PCO2
d. Increased [H+], decreased [2,3 DPG], increased temperature and decreased PCO2

c. Increased [H+], increased [2,3 DPG], increased temperature and increased PCO2

( Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology: pg 568)

14

Which of the following conditions can result in a respiratory alkalosis?

a. Septicemia
b. Right to left shunts
c. Myasthenia gravis
d. Diaphragmatic hernia

a. Septicemia

(Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology: pg 577)

15

Which of the following reflects the pO2 at room air, arterial blood and venous blood.

a. 100mmHg, 90mmHg, 45mmHg
b. 760mmHg, 90mmHg, 40mmHg
c. 150mmHg, 90mmHg, 40mmHg
d. 150mmHg, 40mmHg, 20mmHg

c. 150mmHg, 90mmHg, 40mmHg

(Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology: pg 573)

16

Which one of the following alterations in blood gas values can result from excessive heparin in the sample?

a. Increased [H+]
b. Increased PO2
c. Increased PCO2
d. Increased [HCO3-]

b. Increased PO2

Stockham and Scott (2nd Ed.), Chap. 10, p. 573.

17

Which type of acidosis is described as a decreased strong ion difference resulting from an excess of free water?

a. Dilutional acidosis
b. Organic acidosis
c. Secretory acidosis
d. Titrational acidosis

a. Dilutional acidosis

Stockham and Scott (2nd Ed.), Chap. 10, p. 574.

18

Which of the following conditions, concurrent to alkalosis, can cause paradoxical aciduria?

a. Hypokalemia and hyperchloremia
b. Hypovolemia and hyperkalemia
c. Hypovolemia and hypochloremia
d. Hypochloremia and hyponatremia

c. Hypovolemia and hypochloremia

Stockham and Scott (2nd Ed.), Chap. 10, p. 576.

19

The Henderson Hassalbalch equation describes which of the following?

a) pH is proportional to the [HCO3-]/[pCO2]
b) a small K value is associated with strong acids
c) pH is inversely proportional to the concentration of bicarbonate divided by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
d) pH is proportional to the [pCO2]/[HCO3-]

a) pH is proportional to the [HCO3-]/[pCO2]

Source: Page 561. Stockham, S.L. and M.A. Scott, Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology. 2nd ed2008, Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub

20

Which of the following are correct reference intervals (lower and upper limit) on a venous blood gas test?

a) Base excess 0-20
b) pH 7.0-7.5
c) pCO2 35-45
d) Total CO2 25-35
e) Anion gap 8-15

c) pCO2 35-45

RI are as follows, pH 7.35-7.45, pCO2 35-45, BE -2-8, total CO2 18-26, AG 13-22. Source: from Dr. Wiedmeyer’s powerpoint and from the NOVA machine in the ICU.

21

What are the 3 independent variables in Stewart’s strong ion difference model?

a) Strong ion difference, total concentration of weak acids and pCO2
b) Strong ion difference, bicarbonate concentration and pCO2
c) Strong ion difference, bicarbonate concentration and total concentration of weak acids
d) Strong ion difference, total sodium concentration and total chloride concentration

a) Strong ion difference, total concentration of weak acids and pCO2

Source: page 585. Stockham, S.L. and M.A. Scott, Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology. 2nd ed2008, Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub

22

Which of the following is not included in the Strong Ion Difference?

A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Bicarbonate

D. Bicarbonate

Dr. Wiedmeyer’s ppt

23

Carbon dioxide is a component of the carbonic acid equilibrium. Which of the following is NOT true of carbon dioxide?

A. Exists as part of a closed system
B. Higher concentration leads to increased [H+]
C. It is an independent variable

A. Exists as part of a closed system

Dr. Wiedmeyer’s ppt

24

Which of the following does not lead to an anticipated increase in anion gap?

A. Ethylene glycol toxication
B. Protein losing nephropathy leading to hypoalbuminemia
C. Decreased GFR leading to increased inorganic phosphates
D. Hypoperfusion leading to hyperlactatemia

B. Protein losing nephropathy leading to hypoalbuminemia

Lecture slides from 11.13.14 Wiedmeyer Acid-Base powerpoint

25

Which of the following is a true statement?

a. Acids accept hydrogen ions
b. Bases donate hydrogen ions
c. The body has a closed system of buffering
d. The body maintains a slightly alkaline pH

d. The body maintains a slightly alkaline pH

Source: The basics of Acid/Base – Charles Wiedmeyer

26

All of the following cause/contribute to an increased anion gap except?

a. Lactate
b. Hypochloridemia
c. Ketones
d. Uremic acids

b. Hypochloridemia

Source: The basics of Acid/Base – Charles Wiedmeyer

27

A patient with increased TCO2 and bicarbonate on bloodwork most likely has what acid/base disturbance?

a. Metabolic acidosis
b.Metabolic alkalosis
c. Respiratory acidosis
d. Respiratory alkalosis

b.Metabolic alkalosis

Source: The basics of Acid/Base – Charles Wiedmeyer

28

Choose the single, most accurate statement.

a. A positive BEecf (Base Excess in extracellular fluid) indicates a metabolic alkalosis while a negative BEecf indicates a metabolic acidosis.
b. A negative BEecf (Base Excess in extracellular fluid) indicates a metabolic alkalosis while a positive BEecf indicates a metabolic acidosis.
c. BEecf is non diagnostic in veterinary medicine in regards to acid-base.

a. A positive BEecf (Base Excess in extracellular fluid) indicates a metabolic alkalosis while a negative BEecf indicates a metabolic acidosis.

Stockham and Scott, Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2nd ed. pg. 567

29

Is the following statement True or False?
In a physiologic state in which a patient has a simple acid-base disturbance, compensatory mechanisms can over-correct the disturbance.

a. True
b. False

b. False

“The Basics of Acid/Base”, Charles Weidmeyer, DVM, PhD, DACVP, Advanced Clinical Pathology, 2014, slide 18.

30

Complete the following statement.
The anion gap helps define metabolic disturbances and provides a clinically useful estimate of __________________________.

a. the change in measured ions
b. the amount of ions retained or lost
c. the concentration of unmeasured ions
d. the amount of HCO3- required to correct a metabolic acidosis.

c. the concentration of unmeasured ions

“The Basics of Acid/Base”, Charles Weidmeyer, DVM, PhD, DACVP, Advanced Clinical Pathology, 2014, slide 21.

31

What is normal venous pH of a dog?

A. 7.0
B. 7.2
C. 7.35
D. 7.6

C. 7.35

(Slide 4; The Basics of Acid/Base PPT by CW on 11/13/2014)

32

Which of the following buffering system is relatively FAST to adapt to changes in pH?

A. GI
B. integument
C. renal
D. respiratory

D. respiratory

(Slide 6; The Basics of Acid/Base PPT by CW on 11/13/2014)

33

Which of the following acid/base disturbances is correctly matched to the bloodwork abnormalities expected?

A. Respiratory acidosis ↑ pCO2
B. Respiratory acidosis ↓ pCO2
C. Metabolic acidosis ↑ HCO3-
D. Respiratory acidosis ↓ HCO3-

A. Respiratory acidosis ↑ pCO2

(Slide 16; The Basics of Acid/Base PPT by CW on 11/13/2014)

34

Which of the following is not a common cause of an elevated anion gap?

A) Ketoacids
B) Renal tubular acidosis
C) Hyperphosphatemia
D) Lactic acidosis

B) Renal tubular acidosis

Source: “A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis”, Hopper, JVECC, p. 469

35

What are the primary components of ATOT in the Stewart principles of acid-base chemistry?

A) Albumin and phosphorus
B) Albumin and sodium
C) Albumin and potassium
D) Albumin and chloride

A) Albumin and phosphorus

Source: “A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis”, Hopper, JVECC, p. 470

36

Which of the following would not contribute to a metabolic alkalosis?

A) Hypoalbuminemia
B) Hypochloremia
C) Free water excess
D) Increased unmeasured cations

C) Free water excess

Source: “A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis”, Hopper, JVECC, p. 471

37

Which of the following can result in a reduction of the Anion Gap value:

a. Hyponatremia
b. Hypochloremia
c. Hypoalbuminemia
d. Hypocalcemia

c. Hypoalbuminemia

Hopper, K, Haskins, S. C., (2008). A Case-Based Review of a Simplified Quantitative Approach to Acid-Base Analysis. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 18(5): 470. DOI: 10.0000/j.1476-4431.200800344x

38

In dogs without respiratory disease, respiratory compensation in response to a metabolic acid-base disturbance is typically completed:

a. Within several seconds
b. Within several minutes
c. Within several hours
d. Within several days

c. Within several hours

Hopper, K, Haskins, S. C., (2008). A Case-Based Review of a Simplified Quantitative Approach to Acid-Base Analysis. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 18(5): 468. DOI: 10.0000/j.1476-4431.200800344x

39

Which of the following parameters is not calculated and analyzed in the Fencl-Stewart approach for estimating various effects on standardized base excess?

a. Free water
b. Albumin
c. Lactate
d. Ketones

d. Ketones

Hopper, K, Haskins, S. C., (2008). A Case-Based Review of a Simplified Quantitative Approach to Acid-Base Analysis. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 18(5): 470. DOI: 10.0000/j.1476-4431.200800344x

40

Within the body, chloride is commonly reciprocally linked with which of the following, especially in regards to acid-base.

a. Albumin
b. Potassium
c. Bicarbonate
d. Magnesium

c. Bicarbonate

“A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis,” Kate Hopper, JVECCS 2008, pg. 471.

41

Lactate is the byproduct of glycolysis and is produced during ____________________. What else is produced during anaerobic metabolism?

a. anaerobic metabolism, OH-
b. anaerobic metabolism, H+
c. aerobic, OH-
d. aerobic, H+

b. anaerobic metabolism, H+

“A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis,” Kate Hopper, JVECCS 2008, pg. 471.

42

When comparing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to the Simplified Strong Ion Model, which is the most accurate summary?

a. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation mechanistically describes an acid-base disturbance while the Simplified Strong Ion Difference provides a descriptive interpretation of an acid-base model.
b. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation descriptively quantifies an acid-base disturbance while the Simplified Strong Ion Difference provides a mechanistic quantification of an acid-base disturbance.
c. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is no longer an acceptable method of determining acid-base derangements and should not be used anymore in deference to the Simplified Strong Ion Model.
d. The Simplified Strong Ion Model cannot be simplified mathematically to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation; therefore, one cannot draw conclusions about the two theories.

b. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation descriptively quantifies an acid-base disturbance while the Simplified Strong Ion Difference provides a mechanistic quantification of an acid-base disturbance.

“Clinical Assessment of Acid-Base Status: Comparison of the Henderson-Hasselbalch and Strong Ion Approaches.” Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 2000 Vol 29, No. 4, pg. 116-125.

43

Which one of the following combinations of abnormalities would ALL have an acidifying effect?

A. Free water deficit; hyperchloremia; hypophosphatemia
B. Free water deficit; hypochloremia; hypophosphatemia
C. Free water excess; hypochloremia; hyperphosphatemia
D. Free water excess; hyperchloremia; hyperphosphatemia

D. Free water excess; hyperchloremia; hyperphosphatemia

(Hopper, Haskins. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis, pg 471)

44

In which one of the following situations is base excess the MOST useful?

A. In presence of a low PCO2; to assess the respiratory component of an acid-base disorder
B. In presence of a low PCO2; to assess the metabolic component of an acid-base disorder
C. In presence of a high PCO2; to assess the respiratory component of an acid-base disorder
D. In presence of a high PCO2; to assess the metabolic component of an acid-base disorder

D. In presence of a high PCO2; to assess the metabolic component of an acid-base disorder

(Hopper, Haskins. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis, pg 469)

45

Which one of the following is the correct expected compensation for a metabolic alkalosis in a canine patient?

A. Increase in CO2 of 0.7 mmHg for each 1 mEq/L increase of HCO3
B. Increase in CO2 of 0.25 mmHg for each 1 mEq/L increase of HCO3
C. Decrease in CO2 of 0.7 mmHg for each 1 mEq/L increase of HCO3
D. Decrease in CO2 of 0.25 mmHg for each 1 mEq/L increase of HCO3

A. Increase in CO2 of 0.7 mmHg for each 1 mEq/L increase of HCO3

(Hopper, Haskins. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis, pg 468)

46

According to the Stewart approach, all of the following are considered to be independent determinants of acid-base balance except?

a. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
b. Bicarbonate concentration
c. Strong ion difference
d. Total weak acids

b. Bicarbonate concentration

Source: Hopper, Kate and Haskins, Steve. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. JVECC. 18(5). 2008, pp 467-476.

47

A decrease in strong ion difference is proposed to be caused by which of the following?

a. Metabolic acidosis
b. Metabolic alkalosis
c. Respiratory acidosis
d. Respiratory alkalosis

a. Metabolic acidosis

Source: Hopper, Kate and Haskins, Steve. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. JVECC. 18(5). 2008, pp 467-476.

48

All of the following can have an alkalinizing effect except?

a. Free water deficit
b. Hypochloremia
c. Hypoalbuminemia
d. Hyperphosphatemia

d. Hyperphosphatemia

Source: Hopper, Kate and Haskins, Steve. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. JVECC. 18(5). 2008, pp 467-476.

49

Which of the following abnormalities is considered alkalinizing by the quantitative acid-base approach?

A) Hyponatremia
B) Hyperalbuminemia
C) Unmeasured cations
D) Hyperphosphatemia

C) Unmeasured cations

(quantitative acid base analysis: table 5)

50

Which of the following conditions have been shown to result in a respiratory acidosis?

A) Hypotension
B) Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
C) High dose penicillin derivative antibiotics
D) Carbohydrate rich parenteral nutrition.

D) Carbohydrate rich parenteral nutrition.

(quantitative acid base analysis: table 2)

51

Which of the following are measured as part of the simplified strong ion approach?

A) Total CO2
B) pH, PCO2, BEECF
C) PH, PO2, Na, K, Cl-
D) PH, PCO2, Na, K, Cl, lactate, total protein

D) PH, PCO2, Na, K, Cl, lactate, total protein

(Constable table 1)

52

According to the 2008 Hopper et al paper, all of the following are one of the 5 separate variables that contribute to the standardized base excess in the Fencl-Stewart approach to acid base EXCEPT?

a) Free water effect
b) Chloride concentration
c) Albumin effect
d) Lactate effect
e) Strong ion difference

e) Strong ion difference

e) this is part of Stewart’s principles along with pCO2, SID and total weak acids. The 5th variable is phosphate effect. Source: Hopper, Kate, et al. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. JVECC, 2008. 18(5): p.467-476.

53

According to the 2008 Hopper et al paper, which of the following is a cause of metabolic alkalosis?

a) Malignant hyperthermia
b) Hypotension
c) Renal hydrogen ion loss due to diuretic use
d) Hyperphoshatemia

c) Renal hydrogen ion loss due to diuretic use

A)respiratory acidosis B)respiratory alkalosis D)normochloremic elevated anion gap. Source: Hopper, Kate, et al. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. JVECC, 2008. 18(5): p.467-476.

54

According to the 2008 Hopper et al paper, which ion(s) are the main contributors to the strong ion difference?

a) Potassium
b) Chloride
c) Sodium
d) Sodium and chloride

d) Sodium and chloride

Source: Hopper, Kate, et al. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. JVECC, 2008. 18(5): p.467-476.

55

How long does it take the metabolic compensatory response to complete after a primary respiratory disorder occurs affecting the pH?

A. 7-10 hours
B. 7-10 days
C. 2-5 days
D. 2-5 hours

C. 2-5 days

(pg 468, “A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis” Hopper, K and Haskins, SC. JVECC 18(5) 2008, pp. 467-476)

56

Which of the following individual abnormalities identified with the quantitative acid-base approach is NOT acidifying?

A. Hyperphosphatemia
B. Hyperlactatemia
C. Free water excess (hyponatremia)
D. Increasing unmeasured cations

D. Increasing unmeasured cations

(pg 471 [Table 5], “A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis” Hopper, K and Haskins, SC. JVECC 18(5) 2008, pp. 467-476)

57

What is NOT a common cause of a normochloremia elevated anion gap?

A. liver enzyme elevation
B. ethylene glycol intoxication
C. ketoacidosis
D. lactic acidosis

A. liver enzyme elevation

(pg 469 [Table 2], “A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis” Hopper, K and Haskins, SC. JVECC 18(5) 2008, pp. 467-476)

58

According to Constable, which are the most important factors that determine plasma pH in a clinical setting?

a. SID, volatile buffers (HCO3), and nonvolatile buffers
b. Pco2, SIG, nonvolatile buffers, and temperature
c. Pco2, SID, nonvolatile buffers, and temperature
d. Pco2, SID, and nonvolatile buffers

c. Pco2, SID, nonvolatile buffers, and temperature

Constable PD. Clinical assessment of acid-base status : comparison of the Henderson-Hasselbalch and strong ion approaches. Vet Clin Pathol. 2000;29(4):115-28. (p. 123)

59

According to Constable, the major advantage of extracellular base excess over HCO3 concentration is that it is independent from which one of these variables?

a. Arterial Pco2
b. Plasma proteins
c. Strong ion difference
d. Inter-species variations

a. Arterial Pco2

Constable PD. Clinical assessment of acid-base status : comparison of the Henderson-Hasselbalch and strong ion approaches. Vet Clin Pathol. 2000;29(4):115-28. (p. 116)

60

Which of the following abnormalities have an alkalinizing effect?
a. Hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypoalbuminemia
b. Hypernatremia, hyperchloremia and hypoalbuminemia
c. Hypernatremia, hypochloremia and hyperalbuminemia
d. Hypernatremia, hypochloremia and hypoalbuminemia

d. Hypernatremia, hypochloremia and hypoalbuminemia

Hopper K, Haskins SC. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2008 ; 18(5):467-76. (p. 471)

61

Which of the following values is calculated and is not measured directly on a blood gas instrument?
a. H+ concentration
b. HCO3-
c. pCO2
d. pO2

b. HCO3-

Stockham p. 561

62

All of the following are involved in calculating base excess EXCEPT:
a. pH
b. pO2
c. pCO2
d. hemoglobin

b. pO2

Stockham p. 561

63

An excess of free water leading to a hyponatremia will result in what kind of acid/ base change?
a. Contraction alkalosis
b. Dilutional acidosis
c. Respiratory acidosis
d. No change

b. dilutional acidosis

Hopper K, Haskins SC. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2008 ; 18(5):467-76. (p. 471)

64

If SID increases then [H+] _______ = strong ion _______.
a) Decreases, alkalosis
b) Decreases, acidosis
c) Increases, alkalosis
d) Increases, acidosis

a) decreases, alkalosis