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Flashcards in Proteins/Lipids/CHOs Deck (70):
1

All but which of the following are components of “triaditis” that is described in cats?

A) Chronic pancreatitis
B) Hepatitis
C) Enteritis
D) Cystitis

D) Cystitis

Source: Xenoulis et al. “Chronic pancreatitis in dogs and cats,” p. 169.

2

What is the major acute phase protein that responds to inflammatory stimuli in the cat?

A) C-reactive protein
B) Serum amyloid A
C) Haptoglobin
D) alpha1-acid glycoprotein

B) Serum amyloid A

Source: Ekersall PD and Bell R. “Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine,” p. 24.
*In the other APP paper you all were assigned, both SAA and AGP are listed as major APPs of the cat.

3

All of the following are positive acute phase proteins except:

A) Haptoglobin
B) C-reactive protein
C) Transferrin
D) Serum amyloid A

C) Transferrin

Source: Ceron et al. “Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives,” p. 86.

4

This is the least dense of the lipoproteins and are synthesized by enterocytes

a. Chylomicra
b. Very low density lipoproteins
c. Intermediate density lipoproteins
d. High density lipoproteins

a. Chylomicra

Reference: Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates p 185

5

Which of the following is NOT a component of triaditis in cats?

a. Cholangitis
b. Inflammatory bowel disease
c. Pancreatitis
d. Renal disease

d. Renal disease

Reference: Chronic pancreatitis in dogs and cats Pg 169

6

Which is the gold standard test for the diagnosis of canine Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency per Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity in Dogs and Cats?

a. cTLI
b. cPLI
c. Histopathology
d. Amylase

a. cTLI

Reference Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity in Dogs and Cats. Pg 318

7

Elevation of serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) in cats can be seen in all of the following disease processes EXCEPT:

a. GI Lymphoma
b. Azotemia
c. Pancreatitis
d. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

d. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Tarpley, HL, Bounous, DI: Digestive System, in Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 238-239.

8

Which of the following tests is useful in the measurement of albumin in dogs:

a. Bromcresol green
b. Bromcresol purple
c. Bromcresol blue
d. None of the above

a. Bromcresol green

Evans, EW: Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates, in Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 176.

9

Alpha-1-acid glycoproteins suppresses immune function by modulating the effects of all of the following mediators EXCEPT:

a. IL-1
b. IL-6
c. TGF-β
d. TNF-α

c. TGF-β

Yuki M, Itoh H, Takase K: Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration in clinically healthy puppies and adult dogs and in dogs with various diseases. Vet Clin Pathol 2010; 39: p 65.

10

Which one of the following factors is known to affect the specificity of the specific canine pancreatic lipase (Spec cPL) assay for the diagnosis of pancreatitis?

a. Chronic renal failure
b. Concentrations in the gray zone
c. High intraindividual variability
d. Long cPLI half-life

c. High intraindividual variability

Xenoulis PG, Steiner JM. Canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity. Vet Clin Pathol. 2012;41(3):312-24. (p. 316)

11

Which positive acute phase protein has drug binding as one of its main biological functions?

a. Albumin
b. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein
c. C-reactive protein
d. Haptoglobin

b. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein

Ceron JJ, Eckersall PD, Martinez-Subiela S. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Vet Clin Pathol. 2005;34(2):85-99. (p. 87)

12

Which one of the following does NOT characterize major acute phase proteins?

a. High concentration in healthy animals
b. 10-100-fold increase on stimulation
c. Rapid increase on stimulation
d. Rapid decline during recovery

a. High concentration in healthy animals

Eckersall PD, Bell R. Acute phase proteins: biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Vet J. 2010;185:23-7. (p. 23)

13

Which of the following is suggestive of proximal small intestinal disease?

a. Increased folate, increased cobalamin, decreased TLI
b. Decreased folate, normal cobalamin, normal TLI
c. Decreased folate, decreased cobalamin, normal TLI
d. Increased folate, decreased cobalamin, decreased TLI

b. Decreased folate, normal cobalamin, normal TLI

(Digestive system pg. 241)

14

Which of the following is considered a major negative acute phase protein.

a. Albumin
b. CRP
c. Serum Amyloid A
d. Fibrinogen

a. Albumin

(Proteins, lipids and Carbohydrates pg 179)

15

Which of the following is true regarding acute phase proteins.

a. Synthesis is stimulated by IL1-B, IL5 and TNF
b. Synthesis is stimulated by IL1-A, IL6, TGF-B
c. Synthesis is stimulated by IL1-B, IL6, TNF
d. Synthesis is stimulated by IL1-A, IL6, TGF-B

c. Synthesis is stimulated by IL1-B, IL6, TNF

(Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates pg 178)

16

Match the species with their major acute phase protein (species, protein).

a. Dog, Haptoglobin
b. Swine, Haptoglobin
c. Cow, C-Reactive Protein
d. Horse, Serum Amyloid A

d. Horse, Serum Amyloid A

Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine, P.D. Eckersall & R. Bell. Table 1, pg. 24

17

The acute phase response refers to a nonspecific and complex reaction of an animal that occurs shortly after any tissue injury. The acute phase response is considered….

a. a part of the innate host defense system.
b. a part of the acquired host defense system.
c. a component of a delayed immune response initiated solely by leukocytes.
d. a solitary event that happens only in response to immune mediated disease.

a. a part of the innate host defense system.

Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Cerón et al. pg. 85

18

In which species does α1 – acid glycoprotein serum concentration increase with growth/age and in which species does it decrease with age/maturation?

a. Feline; bovine
b. Canine; bovine only
c. Canine; bovine and swine
d. Bovine; canine and swine
e. Swine; canine and bovine

c. Canine; bovine and swine

Serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein concentration in clinically healthy puppies and adult dogs and in dogs with various diseases. Yuki, Itoh, Takase. Pg. 66.

19

Some plasma proteins are consumed during clot formation. Which of the following is not typically decreased in fresh serum of a dog?

A. Fibrinogen
B. Factor V
C. Factor VII
D. Factor VIII

C. Factor VII

Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology, Lattimer, p 173

20

The half-life of albumin in dogs is reported to be

A. 8 hours
B. 12 hours
C. 8 days
D. 12 days

C. 8 days

Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology, Lattimer, p 173

21

Albumin accounts for what percentage of total colloidal osmotic activity?

A. 25%
B. 50%
C. 75%
D. 95%

C. 75%

Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology, Lattimer, p 173

22

Which of the following is a major acute phase protein used in ruminants?

a. C reactive protein
b. Haptoglobin
c. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein
d. Ceruloplasmin

b. Haptoglobin

Source: Eckersall, P.D. and Bell, R. Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine; The Veterinary Journal. 2010; 23-27

23

All of these are risk factors associated with developing pancreatitis except?

a. Breed
b. Hypothyroidism
c. Hypocalcemia
d. Obesity

c. Hypocalcemia

Source: Xenoulis, P. et al; Chronic Pancreatitis in Dogs and Cats; Compendium. March 2008.

24

Which of the following is true regarding the acute phase response?

a. The acute phase response is a specific response of an animal to tissue injury
b. The acute phase response is part of the body’s adaptive immune response
c. An increase in acute phase proteins is noted at the same time as an increase in leukocytes
d.The purpose of the response is to restore homeostasis and remove cause of tissue injury

d.The purpose of the response is to restore homeostasis and remove cause of tissue injury

Source: Ceron, J. et al. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2005. Vol. 34. No.2. pg. 85-99.

25

What percentage of the total serum protein concentration in domestic animals does albumin account for?

A. 10-15%
B. 0-10%
C. 35-50%
D. 80-100%

C. 35-50%

(pg 173, Evans EW: Proteins, Lipids and Carbohydrates, in Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 173-209.)

26

What method is used by most veterinary laboratories to quantitate albumin?

A. bromcresol purple (BCP) dye-binding method
B. bromcresol red (BCR) dye-binding method
C. India ink
D. bromcresol green (BCG) dye-binding method

D. bromcresol green (BCG) dye-binding method

(pg 176, Evans EW: Proteins, Lipids and Carbohydrates, in Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 173-209.)

27

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major positive acute-phase protein in dogs, horses, and pigs. When does the CRP value peak after an insult to the body typically?

A. 24 hours
B. 2 hours
C. 72 hours
D. 7 days

A. 24 hours

(pg 179, Evans EW: Proteins, Lipids and Carbohydrates, in Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 173-209.)

28

Which of the following is true about chronic versus acute pancreatitis?

a) A higher cPLI or fPLI in chronic vs. acute
b) Pancreatic acinar atrophy in chronic vs. acute
c) Neutrophilic versus lymphocytic infiltration in chronic vs. acute
d) False negative cPLI is less common in chronic vs. acute

b) Pancreatic acinar atrophy in chronic vs. acute

Source: Xenoulis, et al. Chronic Pancreatitis in Dogs and Cats. Compenium, 2008. p.166-181.

29

Which of the following has the weakest correlation with canine pancreatitis?

a) Hypothyroidism
b) Hyperadrenocorticism
c) Diabetes mellitus
d) Obesity
e) Hyperthyroidism

e) Hyperthyroidism

Source: Xenoulis, et al. Chronic Pancreatitis in Dogs and Cats. Compenium, 2008. p.166-181.

30

Which of the following has been most associated with increased cPLI?

a) Azotemia
b) Lipemia
c) IBD
d) Long-term prednisone administration
e) Post-prandial sampling

c) IBD

Source: Xenoulis, et al. Canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 2012. 41(3), p.312-324.

31

The acute phase response is part of the _________ immune system and is __________.

A. Adaptive; specific
B. Adaptive; non-specific
C. Innate; specific
D. Innate; non-specific

D. Innate; non-specific

(Ceron et al. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats, pg. 85)

32

In dogs, the major acute phase proteins are ___________ and ____________.

A. C-reactive protein; serum amyloid A
B. C-reactive protein; haptoglobin
C. α1 acid glycoprotein; serum amyloid A
D. α1 acid glycoprotein; haptoglobin

A. C-reactive protein; serum amyloid A

(Ekersall, Bell. Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine, Pg. 25)

33

The major function of C-reactive protein is ______________.

A. The binding of lipophilic drugs
B. To promote binding of complement to bacteria
C. The binding of free hemoglobin
D. To transport copper for wound healing

B. To promote binding of complement to bacteria

(Ceron et al. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats, pg. 87)

34

Nephrotic syndrome consists of hypoalbuminemia, edema, proteinuria, and ___.

a. Hypercholesterolemia
b. Hypocholesterolemia
c. Hyperglobulinemia
d. Hypoglobulinemia

a. Hypercholesterolemia

Reference: Xenoulis. Lipid Metabolism Pg 16

35

Which of the following is a cause of secondary hyperlipidemia?

a. Pancreatitis
b. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
c. Hyperthyroidism
d. Protein losing enteropathy

a. Pancreatitis

Reference: Xenoulis. Lipid Metabolism Pg 16

36

Which of the following is NOT an effect of inflammation on lipid metabolism/function?

a. Insulin resistance
b. Increased triglyceride production
c. Decreased HDL and LDL
d. Increased HDL and LDL

d. Increased HDL and LDL

Reference: Wendel. Lipoproteins in Inflammation and sepsis; Dr. Whitney’s lecture

37

Which of the following is NOT a process that typically produces glucose in the body?

A. gluconeogenesis in the liver
B. glycogenolysis in muscle and liver
C. carbohydrate digestion in the large intestine
D. lactate metabolism through the Cori cycle

C. carbohydrate digestion in the large intestine

(pg 360, “Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients” Knieriem, M, Otto, CM, and Macintire D. Compendium 2007, pp. 360-372)

38

Which glucose transport protein has a high glucose affinity to ensure some glucose transport to the brain and placenta during episodes of hypoglycemia?

A. GLUT 2
B. GLUT 56
C. GLUT 4
D. GLUT 1

D. GLUT 1

(pg 361, “Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients” Knieriem, M, Otto, CM, and Macintire D. Compendium 2007, pp. 360-372)

39

What is the name of the process where lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles goes to the liver; converts back to pyruvate and ultimately glucose, which then can return to the muscles and be converted back to lactate?

A. Cori cycle
B. pentose phosphate cycle
C. citric acid cycle
D. TCA cycle

A. Cori cycle

(pg 364, “Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients” Knieriem, M, Otto, CM, and Macintire D. Compendium 2007, pp. 360-372)

40

The apolipoprotein C-II is a cofactor for which enzyme in lipid metabolism:

a. Hepatic triglyceride lipase
b. Lipoprotein lipase
c. Cholesterol ester transfer protein
d. Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase

b. Lipoprotein lipase

Xenoulis, P.G., Steiner, J.M. (2010) Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. The Veterinary Journal, 183: pg 13.

41

Which of the following pairs of breed and lipid disorder is NOT correct:

a. Idiopathic hyperlipidemia in Miniature Schnauzers
b. Hypertriglyceridemia in Burmese cats
c. Familial hyperlipoproteinemia in Brittany Spaniels
d. Primary hypercholesterolemia of Briard dogs

c. Familial hyperlipoproteinemia in Brittany Spaniels

Evans, EW: Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates, in Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 188

42

Which of the following is NOT a potential fate of glucose-6-phosphate in a hepatocyte:

a. Utilization in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway for the formation of ATP
b. Utilization in the Pentose Phosphate pathway for the formation of NADP+
c. Glycogen synthesis
d. Converted back into glucose and released in the bloodstream

b. Utilization in the Pentose Phosphate pathway for the formation of NADP+

Knieriem, M., Otto, C.M., Macintire D. (2007) Hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. Compend Contin Educ Vet, 29(6): pg 360

43

Lack of this enzyme activity in dogs leads to the formation of unique HDL1 molecules.

A) Lipoprotein lipase
B) Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase
C) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
D) Pancreatic lipase

C) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

Source: “Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs,” Xenoulis and Steiner, p. 13.

44

Which of the following conditions or diseases would typically not cause hyperglycemia?

A) Hyperadrenocorticism
B) Diabetes mellitus
C) Liver insufficiency
D) Stress response

C) Liver insufficiency

Source: “Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill patients,” Knieriem et al., p. 362.

45

This enzyme acts on HDL molecules to convert cholesterol into cholesteryl esters and plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport.

A) Pancreatic lipase
B) Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase
C) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
D) Lipoprotein lipase

B) Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase

Source: “Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs,” Xenoulis and Steiner, p. 13.

46

Which of the following describes the changes in plasma lipid profile in patients with sepsis?

a. ↑TG, ↓FA, ↓cholesterol
b. ↑TG, ↑FA, ↓cholesterol
c. ↑TG, ↑FA, ↑cholesterol
d. ↓TG, ↓FA, ↓cholesterol

b. ↑TG, ↑FA, ↓cholesterol

Wendel M, Paul R, Heller AR. Lipoproteins in inflammation and sepsis. II. Clinical aspects. Intensive Care Med. 2007 Jan;33(1):25-35. (p. 26)

47

Which one of the following mechanisms is involved in LPS neutralization by lipoproteins?

a. Release of cell-bound LPS by PLTP
b. Inhibition of LPS binding to Toll-like receptors
c. Binding of free LPS in serum to apoB-containing LDL
d. Anti-inflammatory effects of oxidized phospholipids

c. Binding of free LPS in serum to apoB-containing LDL

Wendel M, Paul R, Heller AR. Lipoproteins in inflammation and sepsis. II. Clinical aspects. Intensive Care Med. 2007 Jan;33(1):25-35. (p. 29)

48

Which enzyme is absent in dogs, resulting in the formation of HDL1 molecules?

a. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
b. Hepatic triglyceride lipase
c. Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase
d. Phospholipid tranfer protein

a. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

Xenoulis PG, Steiner JM. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. Vet J. 2010;183:12-21. (p. 14)

49

Which of the following classes of lipoproteins predominates in cats and dogs?

a. Chylomicrons
b. VLDL
c. LDL
d. HDL

d. HDL

Source: Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th ed, Latimer KS, ed; 2011, Iowa State Press, p 185.

50

Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding hyperglycemia and inflammation?

a. Hyperglycemia induces nuclear factor kB
b. Hyperglycemia decreases the expression of protein kinase C
c. Hyperglycemia causes an increase in cytokines (TNF, IL-1 and IL-6)
d. Hyperglycemia causes glycosylation and inactivation of immunoglobulin

b. Hyperglycemia decreases the expression of protein kinase C

Source: Knieriem, M. et al. Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients. Compendium Vet. June 2007.

51

Which glucose transporter is found in tissues in which glucose uptake is mediated by insulin?

a. GLUT1
b. GLUT2
c. GLUT3
d. GLUT4

d. GLUT4

Source: Knieriem, M. et al. Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients. Compendium Vet. June 2007.

52

Systemic inflammation causes which one of the following effects on lipid metabolism?

A. Insulin release
B. Increased HDL
C. Decreased LDL
D. Insulin resistance

D. Insulin resistance

(Whitney, MS. Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism Powerpoint)

53

Which of the following statements regarding blood lactate levels is true?

A. Hyperlactatemia only occurs in states of hypoxemia.
B. An improvement of hyperlactatemia of >50% within 6 hours may be correlated with improved mortality rates.
C. A blood lactate level of >2 mmol/L is associated with worse outcome.
D. Baseline lactate levels are a better prognostic indicator than serial changes in lactate.

B. An improvement of hyperlactatemia of >50% within 6 hours may be correlated with improved mortality rates.

(Stevenson, et al. Serial blood lactate concentrations in systemically ill dogs, pg. 234-238)

54

The effects of hyperglycemia include _____-coagulant activity, primarily due to ____________ of the tissue factor pathway.

A. Pro; activation
B. Pro; inhibition
C. Anti; activation
D. Anti; inhibition

A. Pro; activation

(Knieriem, et al. Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients, pg. 365.)

55

Which of the effects regarding hypertriglyceridemia is true?

A. Increased plasma triglycerides results in increased circulation HDL may be protective and can bind LPS and deliver it to liver for degradation.
B. Increased circulating FA cause insulin resistance and increased blood glucose.
C. Activated PKC increases NFKappaB inhibitory protein
D. GLUT 4 activity is increased leading to decreased glucose uptake.

B. Increased circulating FA cause insulin resistance and increased blood glucose.

(powerpoint)

56

Which of the following regarding sepsis is true in humans?

A. LDL, VLDL and HDLs are decreased
B. HDL and LDL are decreased
C. LDL and HDL are increased
D. LDL, VLDL and HDLs are increased

B. HDL and LDL are decreased

(power point)

57

Which of the following regarding primary hyperlipidemia is true?

A. A primary triglyceride defect has been seen in miniature schnauzers and beagles
B. A primary triglyceride defect has been seen in Brittany spaniels and miniature schnauzers
C. A primary cholesterol defect causes increases in VLDL and LDL
D. A primary triglyceride defect causes increases in VLDL and chylomicrons

D. A primary triglyceride defect causes increases in VLDL and chylomicrons

(Xanoulis pg 16 )

58

Hyperlipidemia would be expected to occur with all of the following plasma lipids except:

A. Non-esterified fatty acids
B. Triglycerides
C. Cholesterol
D. Phospholipids

A. Non-esterified fatty acids

Lattimer pg 187

59

Lipemia induced turbidity can cause abnormalities in reading endpoint spectrophotometric determinations of certain serum analytes. Which of the following would not expected to be increased?

A. Glucose
B. Phosphorus
C. Total bilirubin
D. Albumin

D. Albumin

Lattimer pg 189

60

The Cori cycle is critical for providing peripheral tissues with needed energy during anaerobic conditions for preventing acidosis. What is the net energy result of this cycle after 1 mol of glucose is produced?

A. - 4 ATP
B. - 2 ATP
C. +2 ATP
D. +4 ATP

A. - 4 ATP

Stevenson et al Serial blood lactate concentrations in systemically ill dogs Pg 234

61

What is a potential cause of hyperglycemia and glucosuria in a moribund bull?

a. Catecholamine release
b. Traumatic reticuloperitonitis
c. Atypical interstitial pneumonia
d. Lipopolysaccharide endotoxemia

a. Catecholamine release

Duncan & Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th edition, 2011. Pg. #191.

62

Describe glucagon.

a. Glucagon is a by-product of anaerobic metabolism and is a buffered organic acid.
b. Glucagon is a by-product of ketone production and it is analogous to Beta-hydroxybutyrate.
c. Glucagon is released in response to hypoglycemia, promotes hepatic glycogenolysis, and antagonizes the effect of insulin.
d. Glucagon is released in response to hyperglycemia, promotes myocyte and hepatic glycogenolysis, and antagonizes the effect of insulin.

c. Glucagon is released in response to hypoglycemia, promotes hepatic glycogenolysis, and antagonizes the effect of insulin.

Duncan & Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th edition, 2011. Pg. #191.

63

Which ketone(s) is/are commonly detected by most qualitative tests by the nitroprusside reaction? Does this reaction test for the major ketone produced?

a. Acetone; Yes.
b. Beta-hydroxybutyrate; Yes.
c. Acetoacetate; No acetone is the major ketone produced.
d. Acetoacetate and acetone; No, Beta-hydroxybutyrate is the major ketone produced.

d. Acetoacetate and acetone; No, Beta-hydroxybutyrate is the major ketone produced.

Duncan & Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th edition, 2011. Pg. #199.

64

A chemistry panel was pulled from a dog. When the sample was left in the fridge overnight the plasma was white the next morning. What conclusions can be made about this dog?

a) It has either a primary or secondary lipid disorder
b) This can be caused by hypercholesterolemia
c) This may interfere with measurements of bilirubin, albumin, electrolytes
d) This dog is likely symptomatic for a disorder of lipid metabolism
e) If this dog was determined to have a secondary lipid disorder hereditary triglyceride or cholesterol defect should be on the differential

c) This may interfere with measurements of bilirubin, albumin, electrolytes

Source: Xenoulis, et al. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. The Veterinary Journal, 2010. 183, p.12-21.

65

Which apolipoprotein is found in humans but not in dogs?

a) Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT)
b) Lipoprotein lipase
c) Apoliprotein E
d) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)

d) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)

Source: Xenoulis, et al. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs. The Veterinary Journal, 2010. 183, p.12-21.

66

Which of the following changes would be expected in obese individuals versus those with a healthy weight?

a) Decreased adiponectin, decreased leptin, increased resistin
b) Decreased adiponectin, increased leptin, increased resistin
c) Decreased adiponectin, decreased leptin, decreased resistin
d) Increased adiponectin, decreased leptin, increased resistin
e) Increased adiponectin, increased leptin, decreased resistin

b) Decreased adiponectin, increased leptin, increased resistin

Source: Duncan and Prasse, 5th edition, Chapter 6: page 190.

67

In cats,
a. pancreatitis is thought to be of rare occurrence.
b. pancreatitis usually causes pronounced clinical symptomology.
c. acute pancreatitis is believed to be more prevalent than chronic pancreatitis.
d. the best laboratory test for confirming a diagnosis of pancreatitis is the fTLI test.
e. several studies have shown an association between pancreatitis and inflammation of the intestine and liver.

e. several studies have shown an association between pancreatitis and inflammation of the intestine and liver.

68

Where are the lipoproteins produced or formed?
a. chylomicrons in enterocytes, VLDL in liver, LDL in liver, HDL in intestine
b. chylomicrons in vasculature, VLDL in liver, LDL in liver, HDL in intestine and liver
c. chylomicrons in enterocytes, VLDL in liver, LDL in vasculature, HDL in intestine and liver
d. chylomicrons in vasculature, VLDL in intestine, LDL in liver, HDL in liver

c. chylomicrons in enterocytes, VLDL in liver, LDL in vasculature, HDL in intestine and liver

69

All of the following are causes of secondary hyperlipidemia EXCEPT:
a. Pancreatitis
b. Hypoadrenocorticism
c. Hypothyroidism
d. Protein losing nephropathy

b. Hypoadrenocorticism

70

What is the role of lipoproteins in sepsis?
a. Lipoproteins are directly bacteriocidal and aid in clearance of bacteremia
b. Lipoproteins neutralize LPS in addition to having anti-inflammatory properties
c. Lipoproteins enhance the activity of neutrophils and macrophages during the acute stages of inflammation
d. Lipoproteins are down-regulated during sepsis to prevent induction of nitric oxide synthase expression

b. Lipoproteins neutralize LPS in addition to having anti-inflammatory properties

Wendel M, Paul R, Heller AR. Lipoproteins in inflammation and sepsis. II. Clinical aspects. Intensive Care Med. 2007 Jan;33(1):25-35.