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Flashcards in ACTION CPT ch1-3 Deck (23)
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Define ATP and describe its function in the body.


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the “energy currency” of the cell, because it has the ability to store large amounts of energy in the chemical bonds of its phosphates – in a form that cells can use.

(At any one time, the amount of ATP stored in the body is very small, so the body must have a continuous means of generating more.)


How is the RM target for resistance training determined?


In a single training session, the RM target is 10 RM or a target range of 3-5 RM.

Alternatively, resistance can be determined by finding 1 RM of the client and using 70 - 80% of that.


Describe the different types of muscle contraction.


There are 3 types of muscle contractions.

  • Concentric muscle actions produce enough force to overcome external load and shorten the muscle.
    • Example: lifting barbell in bicep curl
  • Eccentric muscle actions produce force while the muscle is lengthening – it is the resistance of the movement.
    • Example: lowering barbell from bicep curl
  • Isometric muscle actions produce force, but there is no change in muscle length.
    • Example: holding the barbell in position

Identify the 3 energy systems for the body.


The 3 energy systems are:

  • ATP-CP system – is used for immediate energy, up to 10 seconds.
  • Lactic acid or Glycolytic system – is used for short-term energy, up to about a minute.
  • Aerobic or Oxidative system – is used for long-term energy production, for greater than two minutes worth of activity.

The cardiovascular system is responsible for:


The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood itself.

It plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis in the body and is responsible for seven primary functions in the body.

  • Transportation of oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body and deoxygenated blood back to the lungs.
  • Distribution of nutrients to cells.
  • Removal of end products and metabolic waste products from the periphery for reuse or elimination.
  • Regulation of pH to control alkalosis or acidosis.
  • Transportation of enzymes and hormones to control physiological function.
  • Maintenance of fluid volume which helps in preventing dehydration.
  • Maintenance of body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat.

What are the three major functions of the nervous system?


The 3 major functions of the nervous system are sensory, integrative and motor functioning.

  • Sensory function – Gathering information about our inner and external surroundings.
  • Integrative function – Processing and interpreting the information.
  • Motor function – Responding to these stimuli.

Define biomechanics.


Biomechanics Definition: the mechanics of tissues, joints, and human movement.

Biomechanics applies engineering principles like fluid mechanics and thermodynamics to biological organisms, incorporating mathematical concepts to analyze biological systems and design and develop equipment & techniques to correct problems, prevent injuries, and enhance performance.


Describe proprioception.


Motor control involves cognition (learning and reasoning) and areas of perception known as proprioception.

Proprioception is being able to sense the location and position of parts of the body in relation to each other and the body as a whole. It is the ability to know if the body is in motion and when it is, where each part is located during the movements.


List at least 5 benefits of a warm-up.


A warm-up is a short duration of activity preceding major exercise, and is necessary to increase muscle temperature and general core temperature of the body. Every training session should begin with a warm-up.

  • Increase in metabolic requirements
  • Makes physical performance more effective & efficient
  • Prevents blood lactic acid accumulation in the muscle, which helps to prevent premature fatigue.
  • Contributes to efficient removal of metabolic by-products.
  • Slowly increases blood flow to muscles.
  • Makes muscle tissue more stretchable.
  • Reduces risk of tearing muscle fibers, tendons, and muscle tissue.
  • Allows warmed muscles to move faster and to generate more force for greater mechanical efficiency.
  • Enhances neural transmission and motor-unit recruitment.
  • Allows nerve impulses to travel faster for quick reaction times.
  • Provides early alerts for potential musculoskeletal or cardiorespiratory problems.

Name and describe the planes of motion.


The 3 planes of motion are:

  • Sagittal Separates the body into a right side and a left side.
  • Frontal Separates the front of the body from the back.
  • Transverse Separates the body into “upper” and “lower” halves.

How is the maximum heart rate determined?

How are the upper and lower limits of the heart rate range determined?


220 – Age = Maximum heart rate

Lower limit of heart rate range = Maximum heart rate multiplied by 0.6

Upper limit of heart rate range = Maximum heart rate multiplied by 0.85


What information should be included in the initial client assessment?


The initial client assessment is comprised of a general history and medical history. After the initial assessment has been completed, but before beginning training, a physical assessment should be completed.

Information Included in General History

  • Occupation – daily work routine, working conditions, and routine work activities (i.e., sitting at a computer)
  • Lifestyle – hobbies, likes and dislikes, opportunities for small fitness changes, diet and alcohol consumption, smoking, etc.

Information Included in Medical History

  • Injuries & Surgeries
  • Diseases and Medical Conditions – includes things like arthritis, diabetes, and hypertension, as well as chronic pain issues (sciatica, shin splints, etc.)
  • Medications – prescription, over-the-counter, and herbal/natural remedies

What is the recommended order of the fitness assessment tests?


Fitness assessment tests should be completed in the following order for the best, most accurate results:

  • Non-fatiguing tests (i.e., height/weight measurements, skinfolds, vertical jump, etc.)
  • Agility tests
  • Maximal strength and power tests
  • Sprint tests
  • Muscular endurance tests
  • Flexibility tests

Describe the kinetic chain and its function.


The kinetic chain consists of the muscular, articular and neural systems, and refers to the sensorimotor integration of these systems for motor output. Each system works interdependently with the others for structural and functional efficiency.


Identify the primary method used to calculate a pulse and the two most common areas to locate a pulse.


Pulse is the frequency of the heart beat, and checking the pulse is an easy way to determine one’s current heart rate or the number of heartbeats per minute (BPM).

To calculate a pulse: Count the number of heartbeats for 10 seconds then multiply by 6.

Example: 12 heartbeats in 10 seconds times 6 = 72 BPM

The two most common sites to locate a pulse are:

  • at the thumb side of the wrist, below the base of the thumb (radial pulse)
  • on the neck just below the jaw along the windpipe and throat (carotid pulse)

In terms of fitness, what is VO2 max and what does it measure?


VO2 max is an indicator of the maximum amount of oxygen that a person can take in and utilize during exercise.

VO2 max reflects the physical and cardiorespiratory endurance of an individual.


What is the formula for calculating BMI?


Body Mass Index (BMI) provides an indication of what a person’s body weight should be according to his or her height.

How to calculate BMI using kilograms (kg) and meters (m):

Weight (kg) / [height (m)]² = BMI

How to calculate BMI using pounds (lb) and inches (in):

Weight (lb) / [height (in)]² x 703 = BMI


Why exercise?

  • Maintain and lose weight
  • improve the heart and blood system
  • enhance muscular athletic ability
  • boosts the effectiveness of the immune system
  • improves blood supply to the active muscles
  • capillaries respond more quickly to the requirements of the muscles
  • enhances the volume of blood that can be pumped
  • helps the heart learn to more quickly adapt to exertion
  • increases the rate at which minerals like calcium are deposited
  • protect cells in the brain and nerves from the injury or erosion that normally occurs with neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders
  • increases the actual mechanical strength of heart
  • prevents depression

Identify the 3 kinds of neurons

  • interneurons – transmit signals from one neuron to another neuron.
  • motor neurons – send signals from the spinal cord or the brain to other areas of the body.
  • sensory neurons – send signals from areas of the body to either the spinal cord or to the brain

Identify the components of the nervous system


The nervous system is composed of two major compartments:

  • the central nervous system (CNS – brain and the spinal cord)
    • Brain – cerebrum L/R/thought; cerebellum/posture/coordination; brain stem/HR/BP; diencephalous/hormones
  • and the peripheral nervous system (PNS – nerves in the body, including the cranial and spinal nerves.)
    • PNS is further divided into voluntary nervous system (somatic) and
    • involuntary nervous system (autonomic)
      • sympathetic/stress/speed up & parasympathetic/slow down functions)

Identify the types of muscle tissue


Muscle tissue is categorized into three types according to function and structure:

  • cardiac muscle is exclusively found in the walls of the heart
  • smooth muscle composes the epithelial of other hollow organs.
    • Both cardiac and smooth are under involuntary control.
  • Skeletal muscle is attached to the skeleton and is under voluntary control.

Identify the types of muscle fiber


There are two different fiber types in the muscles of the body:

  • “slow twitch,” endurance and stamina, or Type I, depend relatively more on fats for energy. and
  • “fast twitch,” or Type II, do not require oxygen; utilize sugars for energy

Describe the blood flow through the heart


Heart has two interdependent but separate pumps.

The interatrial spectum separates these two pumps. Each side of has two chambers: an atrium and a ventricle.

  • The right atrium sends deoxygenated blood to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve;
  • the right ventricle then pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery.
  • The re-oxygenated blood coming from the lungs through pulmonary vein is received by the left atrium and
  • then goes through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle.
  • When the left ventricle contracts, it pushes the blood from the heart to the rest of the body.