Flashcards in Acute and Chronic Inflammation Deck (14)
List and describe the 3 clinical signs of acute inflammation and give their clinicopathogenetic basis.
a. Vasodilation / increased blood flowb. Vascular permeability increase - Transudate - Exudatec. Inflammatory cell infiltrate - Neutrophil predominantThese are important in order to get WBCs, clotting factors, chemical mediators, etc to the site of injury to help restore normal function and structure to the area.
List and describe the sequence of events involving a neutrophilic response in acute inflammation due to a pyogenic microorganism, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus.
Dendritic cell and local cells will begin recognizing PAMPs and releasing DAMPs and other inflammatory signals. Neutrophils will chemotax over to the area being the first responders that they are. Once there, they will phagocytose the invader and release more cytokines!
Discuss leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and cite an example of each.
Leukocyte: CD18, B1, B2 integrinsEC: ICAM
Define chemotaxis and list the major chemotactic agents for neutrophils.
Movement of a motile cell or organism, or part of one, in a direction corresponding to a gradient of increasing or decreasing concentration of a particular substance.Chemokines and IL-17
Define opsonin and list the two major types.
The term is usually used in reference to molecules which act as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis.C3b, IgG
Describe the process by which a neutrophil engulfs and destroys a bacterium.
Chemotaxis.Engulfment.Neutrophils are phagocytes, capable of ingesting microorganisms or particles. They can internalize and kill many microbes, each phagocytic event resulting in the formation of a phagosome into which reactive oxygen species and hydrolytic enzymes are secreted. The consumption of oxygen during the generation of reactive oxygen species has been termed the respiratory burst although unrelated to respiration or energy production."
Define and compare abscess and cellulitis.
An abscess is a collection of pus in any part of the body that, in most cases, causes swelling and inflammation around it.Cellulitis is a common skin infection caused by bacteria. Symptoms: Fever; Signs of infection: Chills, shaking; Fatigue; General ill feeling (malaise); Muscle aches, pains (myalgias); Warm skin, sweating, other.
Define chronic inflammation and compare it to acute inflammation. Give examples of etiologic agents which cause chronic inflammation.
Persistent infection, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, other autoimmune diseases, asthma, allergies, atherosclerosis, exogenous material.
Indicate the differential diagnosis of granuloma and discuss its pathogenesis.
Granuloma is a medical term for a roughly spherical mass of chronic immune cells that forms when the immune system attempts to wall off substances perceived as foreign but unable to eliminate. Such substances include infectious organisms such as bacteria and fungi, as well as other materials such as keratin and suture fragmentsPossible diseases: Tuberculosis, Leprosy Schistosomiasis, Histoplasmosis Cryptococcosis, Cat-scratch disease, Sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, Pneumocystis pneumonia, Aspiration pneumonia, Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg Strauss syndrome
Define and compare ulcer and erosion.
a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissueSuperficial destruction of a surface by friction, pressure, ulceration, or trauma.
Define and compare fistula and sinus tract.
In medicine, a fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between two epithelium-lined organs or vessels that normally do not connect.A narrow, elongated channel in the body that allows the escape of fluid.
Describe the pathogenetic, pathologic and clinical features of leukocyte adhesion deficiency, type I; chronic granulomatous disease of infancy; Chediak-Higashi disease.
LAD I: CD18 deficiency decreases adherance to endothelial surface = neutrophiliaChronic Granulomatous Disease: Absence of respiratory burst and production of ROS. Defets in one of 4 oxidase components, thus no toxic oxygen metabolites are produced. = neutrophiliaChediak-Higashi syndrome: Granule defects - leaky + big, defects in movement + degranulation and microbicidal activity
Define and indicate the major features of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the acute phase reaction.
- Fever - Fatigue - Anorexia - SleepinessIn medicine, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection, but not necessarily so. It is related to sepsis, a condition in which individuals both meet criteria for SIRS and have a known or highly suspected infection.