What are the five cardinal signs of injury?
Calor (Heat), Rubor (Redness), Tumor (Swelling), Dolar (Pain), Functio Laesa (Loss of Function)
What is the mechanism that causes an outflow of water into the tissue, resulting in swelling?
Transudate and exudate move from vasculature into tissue compartment, resulting in a decrease in intravascular osmotic pressure. The decreases osmotic pressure inside the vessel leads to a net outflow of water and ions into the surrounding tissue - edema.
What is the vascular response to injury that causes many of the cardinal signs of injury?
Dilation of the local vasculature brings increased blood flow and plasma to the area. This results in redness, warmth, and swelling, three of the cardinal signs of injury.
What is the difference between transudate and exudate?
Transudate is much lower in protein content and responds more to changes in hydrostatic or oncotic pressure. Exudate is higher in protein and cell content and responds to inflammation.
What mechanisms cause the endothelial cells in capilaries to become leaky, allowing fluid to move into the tissue?
They may retract in response to a signal, they may have been damaged by the infection or injury, or they may be damaged by the leukocytes themselves.
What are the phases and cellular structures involved in diapedesis?
Leukocytes initially slow in the blood by connecting to selectins on the endothelial cells. Eventually, they stop by binding to integrins and intracellular adhesion molecules. Once they are stopped, they may begin traversing the endothelial layer into the tissue by extending pseudopods.
What mechanisms to phagocytes use to identify and devour or destroy invaders?
The invding organism is opsonized with antibodies that bind receptors on the phagocyte's surface. The phagocyte may then phagocytose the organism, or may also release granules to attack the organism. Defensins are another class of molecules that the phagocyte may use to punch holes in the invader.
What is a major morphological difference between neutrophils and macrophages?
Neutrophils are also called Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) because of their segmented, multilobed nucleus. Macrophages have one large, mostly round nucleus.
What are the defense mechanisms in place at the boundaries of tissues and the outer world?
A & B - skin and immune cells. A - Barriers, like keratin or epithelial cells (squamous and columnar types, maybe all types). B - Inflammatory cells (Tissue based and ready to react or circulating). C - Infrastructure cells - fibroblasts, endothlial cells
What are the possible outcomes of acute inflammation?
1 - Complete resolution: Macrophage cleanup of necrotic tissue, tissue regeneration, lymphatic drainage resolves edema. 2 - Scarring. 3 - Abcess formation. 4 - Progression to chronic inflammation.
What is the general progression of scar tissue formation after an MI?
Early phase is loss of cardiac muscle nuclei and difference in staining (coagulative necrosis - "ghost cells"). Hemorrhage into the area brings alone the PMN cells. Then scar tissue begins to form and neutrophils are replced by macrophages (monocytes). Finally, scar tissue/fibrosis.
What color are eosinophils?
Red cytoplasm with blue/purple nucleus
What are macrophages called in the liver?
What cells are associated with acute inflamation? With chronic inflammation?
Polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils) are associated with acute inflammation. Macrophages, lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells/plasma cells), and eosinophils are associated with chronic inflammation.
How do mast cells function in inflammation?
Mast cells are present in tissue, closely associated with blood vessels. They participate in both acute and chronic inflammatory reactions by binding IgE and releasing histamine. They are particularly active in response to parasites.
What is a granuloma or giant cell?
It is a combination of many macrophages. Individual macrophages bond together and share cytoplasm, resulting in a multinucleated cell.