acute closed angle glaucoma Flashcards Preview

LS ophthamology > acute closed angle glaucoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in acute closed angle glaucoma Deck (18):
1

who does it affect?

long sighted people increased risk
females
40 years of age + (60-70 especially)

2

what is it and what causes it

raised intracranial pressure caused by aqueous humour build up when drainage ducts are blocked

3

signs and symptoms

severe pain
blurred vision/visual loss
halo around lights
systemic malaise
nausea and vomiting
headache

hazy view of iris
mild DILATED pupil
red eye

4

treatment

iridotomy -laser or surgical by creating hole in iris to allow drainage

prostaglandin analogues- increase uveoslceral outflow

beta blocker-timolol, selective a2 receptor agonist , carbonic acid inhibitors
to reduce aqueous humour production

5

what is orbital cellulitis

inflammation of the eye tissue behind the orbital septum
can be lifethreatening

6

causes

bacterial infection - 3 most common s.aureus, step. pneuomniae, beta haemolytic streptococci
infection from eye lid skin, bloodstream
trauma

7

signs and symptoms

unable to open eye /visual loss
fever
lethargy
erythema
ptosis
eyelid oedema
pain!!!
inflamed eye

8

treatment

abx depending on cause
pencillin and cephalosporins

vancomycin, clindamycin, doxycycline

9

what is giant cell arteritis

inflammation of the arteries esp the temporal artery
can be serious-causing permanent blindness

10

signs and symptoms

jaw claudication
pulsating carotid arteries/branches
sudden visual loss (sudden indicates vascular)
scalp tenderness/headache- on touching/pressure to scalp such as brushing hair, lying on pillow
diplopia

11

tests

CRP
plasma viscosity
ESR but takes time
TA biopsy

12

treatment

high dose prednisolone
low dose aspirin

13

what is facial nerve 3 palsy?

ischaemia in the nerve trunk causing malfunction of cranial nerve 3 (oculomotor)

14

signs and symptoms

the nerve supplies the levator muscles so eye will move down and out laterally of the right eye
ptosis
left eye normal
diplopia

15

what if pain?

pain as well may indicate pituitary adenoma or posterior communicating artery aneurysm

16

what is horner syndrome?

defect in sympathetic trunk usually caused by pancoast tumour
triad of miosis, ptosis and anhydrosis

17

signs ?

drooping eye lid
pin prick/point pupils
dilate in the light and constrict in dark

18

if there is neck jaw and head pain what could it be ?

carotid dissection