Adaptation 2/3 Flashcards Preview

Genetics > Adaptation 2/3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adaptation 2/3 Deck (34):
1

co-evolution

where 2 or more species affect each others evolution e.g. the change in morphology of a plant may affect the morphology of herbivores

2

Co-evolution and close relationships

-mutualistic
-competitive
-predator prey

3

commensalism (only one party benefitted) means

co-evolution is unlikely to happen

4

mullerian mimics

a form of mimicry in which two or more unpalatable animals develop similar appearance as a shared protective device

5

in mullein mimics the more abundant species is the

model

6

2 step to co-evolution

-macroevolution: causes major mutation and phenotypic change
-microevolution- which refines mimicry

7

bateson mimicry

mimicry in which an edible animal is protected by its resemblance to one avoided by predators

8

bateson mimicry may not involve

co-evolution

9

arms race

innovations for one species leads to counter innovation in another species

10

red queen hypothesis

biotic and abiotic world is changing all of the time, shifting adaptive peaks. life is a permanent arms race (one species success means decline for another)

11

adaptive radiation

founder species diversifies to occupy available niches

12

empty niches lack

competition and have plenty of food

13

ecological release

species expands into its new habitat where there is little competition for resources and many resources

14

CIHLID and adaptive radiation

a single species in lake Malawi has diversified
e.g. bottom feeds, surface feeders, insect predators etc

-now 1,000 species of CIHLID in the lake

15

homologous structures are evidence of

radiation

16

analogous structures are evidence of

convergent radiation

17

evolutionary capacitance

living systems have the ability to accumulate genetic variation that has no phenotypic affect until the system is disturbed--> rapid phenotypic change in a pop. therefore rapid adaptation to new conditions

18

convergent evolution

process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits because of having to adapt to similar environments or niches

19

marsupials and convergent evolution

marsupials and mammals can have v similar adaptations

20

african euphorbias and convergent evolution

has similar appearance and adaptions to the N.American cacti

21

evolutionary relay

independent species acquire similar characteristics through evolution in similar ecosystems.. just at DIFFERENT times

22

parallel evolution

independent species acquire same characteristics at SAME time in same ecosystem

23

independent species acquire same characteristics at same time in same ecosystem

parallel evolution

24

independent species acquire similar characteristics through evolution in similar ecosystems.. just at different times

evolutionary relay

25

opposite of evolutionary relay

parallel relay

26

process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits because of having to adapt to similar environments or niches

convergent evolution

27

living systems have the ability to accumulate genetic variation that has no phenotypic affect until the system is disturbed--> rapid phenotypic change in a pop. therefore rapid adaptation to new conditions

evolutionary capacitance

28

evidence of homologous structures

radiation

29

evidence of analogous structures

convergent radiation

30

founder species diversifies to occupy available niches

adaptive radiation

31

innovations for one species leads to counter innovation in another species

arms race

32

mimicry in which an edible animal is protected by its resemblance to one avoided by predators

bateson mimicry

33

a form of mimicry in which two or more unpalatable animals develop similar appearance as a shared protective device

mullarian mimicry

34

where 2 or more species affect each others evolution e.g. the change in morphology of a plant may affect the morphology of herbivores

co-evolution