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Flashcards in Addiction Deck (28)
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What is the deffinition of a drug?

any chemical substance that: has a direct effect on the user’s physical, psychological, and/or intellectual functioning.  


What is the definition of drug abuse?

using a drug in ways it was not intended; no longer being responsible or in control of thoughts, feelings or behavior leading to harm to self or others.


How is addiction defined?

Addiction is the compulsive uncontrolled use of habit forming drugs.


Define Addictive behaviors or “Process Addictions”. 

Give some examples of adictive behaviors. 

Process Addictions are the addiction to certain mood-altering behaviors. 

  •  Gambling, Sexual behaviors, Internet use, Video game behavior, Stealing, Compulsive buying, Eating, Exercising/running


When do most people become addicted to adictive drugs?

Most new cases of drug dependence develop during adolescence.


What are the short term risks associated with weed use?

–Anxiety and panic in new users
–Paranoia and psychosis in high doses
–Impaired motor coordination interfering with driving skills
–Impaired short term memory making learning difficult 


What are the longterm risks assocated with weed use?

–Alterations in brain development
–Poor educational outcome and increased likelihood of dropping out
–Cognitive impairment
–Symptoms of chronic bronchitis
–Increased risk of psychosis disorders in those who are predisposed 


What diseases can weed treat?

–AIDS-associated anorexia and wasting
–Chronic pain
–Multiple sclerosis


Who abuses alcohol the most? 

Which populaions are at greatest risk for alcohol dependence?

Is alcohol use assocated with mental illness?

  • White adolescents and adults more likely to abuse alcohol than African Americans
  • Binge & heavy use drinking lowest among Asian Americans
  • Alcohol dependence highest among Native Americans and Hispanics
  • 21.3% of those with alcohol abuse or dependence  also have at least 1 mental disorder
  • e.g. personality, mood, or anxiety disorders, or schizophrenia


What are the 3 C's of drug abuse?


  • Early social/recreational use
  • Eventual loss of control
  • Cognitive distortions (“denial”)


  • Drug-seeking activities
  • Continued use despite adverse consequences


  • Natural history of multiple relapses preceding stable recovery
  • Possible relapse after years of sobriety


What is stage 1 of drug use?


Curiosity, person considers using the drug, but does not try/acquire it. 


What is stage 2 of drug use? 

Experimentation (learn about drug effect)
Factors that increase the likelyhood the drug will be tried

  • Adolescence
  • Opportunity and social circumstances

Early experience with drug effect

  • Dose/response, person learns how to take the drug and what to do to achieve optimal effect
  • Some like it, some don’t


What is stage 3 of drug use?

Frequent use 

  • User spends more time securing and using the  drug
  • use is recreational or self-therapeutic (less about experimenting)
    • Regular weekend or weekday user
      • Use begins to affect function


What is stage 4 of drug use?

Habitual Use  (user becomes preoccupied with drug effect)

  • main priority in life is aquiring the drug and using it
  • Function is severely affected
    •  truancy/work absenteeism, failing at family  and social relationships,  stealing, lying, dealing
  • Increasing symptoms of psychopathology


What is stage 5 of drug use?

Chronic or Burnout (drug use is apart of identity)

  • Using drugs to feel normal
  • Little identity beyond user
  • Some organic  brain changes and developmental disability


Describe the addition cycle.


DSM-V criteria for drug abuse

  • Use of drug in larger amounts and over longer period than intended.
  • Persistent desire to reduce use 
  • Obtaining drug becomes main priority in life
  • Strong craving for the substance.
  • Affects life at  work, school or home.
  • Priorities drug use over important social, occupational, recreational activities .
  • use of drug despite high risk for physical damage 
  • use despite awareness of physical or psychological problems.
  • Tolerance- need for increased amounts to achieve desired effect 
  • Risk of withdrawal if use is discontinued 


What are the 3 levels of drug abuse defined by the DSM-V?

How many criteria are needed to make diagnosis?

  • 2-3  (mild)
  • 4-5 (moderate)
  • 6+ (severe) 


How does the medical model treat drug abuse? 

How is it viewed? 

What are its prefered treatments? 

Addiction is a disease of brain manifesting abnormal neurotransmitter function.

  • Conforms to disease model:  Agent, Vector, Host
    • based on the notion that there is a genetic basis for addiciotn 
  • By keeping the drug from the host they canot use it 


  • Use drugs to block the abused drug's effect


How does the psychological model of drug abuse view addiction?

How does it treat drug addiction?

Drug abusers use drugs to treat underlying psychological problems

  • Drug use is a maladaptive psychological coping strategy
  • Drug abusers self medicate

Treatment for drug abuse 

  • Recovery demands that users need to resolve internal conflict


According to the social model what is the cause of drug addiction?

Drug use is learned behavior

  • People use because it is modeled by other people
  • Peer influence is active in decision to use

Drug abuse is stopped by having pts change their environment and remove those who influence their drug abuse 


What is the moral (criminal) model of drug abuse?

  • Addicts are weak and can overcome compulsion to use with will power
  • They choose to use drugs which are evil
  • They are anti-social and merit punishment


What are some common Characteristics of Addicts?

  • Unemployment
  • Multiple criminal justice contacts
  • Difficulty coping with stress or anger
  • Tendency to act violently
  • Emotional and psychological difficulties
  • Family problems and difficulty sustaining long-term relationships
  • Educational and vocational deficits


What are the most common risk factors for drug abuse?

  • Genetics
  • Young Age of Onset
  • Childhood Trauma (violent, sexual)
  • Learning Disorders (ADD/ADHD)
  • Mental Illness


What are some barriers for the provider to provide substance abuse treatment?


Why is there low access to substance abuse treatment?

  • Low reimbursement rate

Treatment Principles:

  • No single treatment appropriate for all. Matching treatment to particular problems and needs is needed.
  • Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of individual, not just drug use.
  • Treatment needs to be readily available.
  • Treatment must be flexible; assessed and modified as needed.
  • Sometimes harm reduction is only possible outcome (Ex: clean needles)


What are some common treatments? 

(describe both outpaitent and impaitent)

–Counseling: Individual, Family
–Behavioral therapy
–12-step groups
–Acute residential
–Long-term residential
•Half-way house
•Therapeutic school

•Wilderness programs
•Boot camps


Why dont paitents seek treatment?

•They don’t want to stop
•They don’t believe there is a problem
•They are ashamed or afraid because of societal stigma
•Physician perceived as unknowledgable or too busy
•Fears of exposure to law enforcement
•Fears of loss of family role, marriage, custody


What is the main cognative therapy used to treat substance abuse? 


  • Contingency-Management Therapy
    • Teaches user how to avoid
      • locations assciated with use 
      • Deal with difficult situations associated with use
      • Deal with individuals who encourage use