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Neurobiology of Mental Illness > Addiction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Addiction Deck (14):

Define addiciton.

Pursue relief/reward from substance/drug use.


What brain area is implicated in the intoxication stage?

Nucleus accumbens


What is drug addiction characterised by?

- Compulsion to seek and take drug
- Loss of control in limiting intake
- Emergence of negative emotional state when denied access to drug


What are the two types of motivational framework in addiciton? Describe them.

- Impulse control: positive reinforcement. Pleasure/relief after, tension/arousal before.
- Compulsive disorder: negative reinforcement. Relief after, anxiety/stress before. Persistent and repetitive without reward.


What are the 3 stages of the addiction cycle?

1. Binge/intoxication
2. Withdrawal/negative affect
3. Preoccupation/anticipation/craving


When does substance dependence begin?

When negative reinforcement overtakes positive reinforcement.


What brain areas are implicated in the preoccupation stage of addiction?

- Amygdala: reinforcement learning
- Hippocampus: environmental trigger cues
- PFC: Lack of cognitive control
- Cingulate cortices and temporal lobe: Feeling/craving


What happens to the stress response system in addicts?

- Stress response system is unbalanced
- Body attempts to go back to equilibrium
- Within systems: neural adaptation - threshold for reward increases, become demotivated and depressed
- Between systems: Cortisol released when take drug - stress hormones still in system when drug wears off. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Modulation of amygdala activity.


What is a risk factor for addiction?

Stress response genes


What personality traits are linked to addiction?

- Impulsivity
- Risk-taking
- Stress responsivity


What (drug) treatments are available?

- GABAb receptor antagonists: lower reinforcing effects of some drugs. Modulate dopamine transmission
- Opioid receptor antagonists: bind to opioid receptors and block intake
- Opioid Agonists: bind to receptors and exert similar effects to drug, reduce withdrawal symptoms
- Alpha 2 adrenergic agents: decrease anxiety during withdrawal


Describe detoxification

- Abrupt termination of drug use.
- Shortens withdrawal process but increases experience of pain
- Can use tapering instead: slowly decrease


What did Luigjes et al. 2012 use as a treatment?

- DBS in nucleus accumbens and medial PFC
- Neural pathways seem to be better targets


What did Koob and Volkow (2009) find about the transition to addiction stage?

Neuroplasticity involved to cause changes in mesolimbic dopamine system