Flashcards in Addiction Deck (14):
Pursue relief/reward from substance/drug use.
What brain area is implicated in the intoxication stage?
What is drug addiction characterised by?
- Compulsion to seek and take drug
- Loss of control in limiting intake
- Emergence of negative emotional state when denied access to drug
What are the two types of motivational framework in addiciton? Describe them.
- Impulse control: positive reinforcement. Pleasure/relief after, tension/arousal before.
- Compulsive disorder: negative reinforcement. Relief after, anxiety/stress before. Persistent and repetitive without reward.
What are the 3 stages of the addiction cycle?
2. Withdrawal/negative affect
When does substance dependence begin?
When negative reinforcement overtakes positive reinforcement.
What brain areas are implicated in the preoccupation stage of addiction?
- Amygdala: reinforcement learning
- Hippocampus: environmental trigger cues
- PFC: Lack of cognitive control
- Cingulate cortices and temporal lobe: Feeling/craving
What happens to the stress response system in addicts?
- Stress response system is unbalanced
- Body attempts to go back to equilibrium
- Within systems: neural adaptation - threshold for reward increases, become demotivated and depressed
- Between systems: Cortisol released when take drug - stress hormones still in system when drug wears off. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Modulation of amygdala activity.
What is a risk factor for addiction?
Stress response genes
What personality traits are linked to addiction?
- Stress responsivity
What (drug) treatments are available?
- GABAb receptor antagonists: lower reinforcing effects of some drugs. Modulate dopamine transmission
- Opioid receptor antagonists: bind to opioid receptors and block intake
- Opioid Agonists: bind to receptors and exert similar effects to drug, reduce withdrawal symptoms
- Alpha 2 adrenergic agents: decrease anxiety during withdrawal
- Abrupt termination of drug use.
- Shortens withdrawal process but increases experience of pain
- Can use tapering instead: slowly decrease
What did Luigjes et al. 2012 use as a treatment?
- DBS in nucleus accumbens and medial PFC
- Neural pathways seem to be better targets