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Flashcards in Addiction theory Deck (62)
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1
Q

What are the two types of theories on addiction?

A

Exposure and adaptive.

2
Q

What do adaptive theories of addiction state?

A

That:

  • Certain individuals are vulnerable to addiction - addictive personality.
  • Vulnerability allows drugs to generate addictive behaviour more readily.
3
Q

Of the 8.3% of the American population who uses drugs (2002), approximately what percentage confined their use to marijuana?

A

55% (20% marijuana+other, 25% other drugs).

4
Q

At what age does the incidence of illicit drug use peak?

A

16-25 - declines slowly thereafter.

5
Q

What did Anthony, Warner and Kessler (1994) find?

A

That transition to drug abuse is variable - users are only about 3-32% likely to become dependent.

6
Q

What factors does the likelihood of a person becoming dependent on a substance depend on?

A

The drug and their history of dependence.

7
Q

Of the major drug categories, which are the most and least addictive in terms of the percentage of ever-users who become dependent on them?

A

Most = tobacco and heroin (31.9 and 23.1%)

Least = inhalants and psychedelics (3.7 and 4.9%)

8
Q

What are the demographic and psychosocial factors related to neighbourhood that affect drug use?

A
  • Drug availability
  • Prevalence of drug use
  • Population density, permanence, crime rate
9
Q

What are the demographic and psychosocial factors related to family that affect drug use?

A
  • Parental socioeconomic status
  • Criminality in family
  • Broken home
  • Parents’ mental health
  • Attachment
  • Family attitude to drug use
  • Poor parenting style
10
Q

What are the demographic and psychosocial factors related to peers and education that affect drug use?

A
  • Peer group social norms

- Failure at school

11
Q

What did Tarter et al (2003) investigate?

A

Psychosocial factors in drug use.

12
Q

What did Tarter et al (2003) do?

A
  • Prospective design - 12yo children of drug dependent parents had their personality, temperament and cognitive abilities measured.
  • High and low risk children were compared to counterparts without drug dependent parents.
  • Assessed for drug use at 16 and 19.
13
Q

What did Tarter et al (2003) find?

A

That ‘neurobehavioural dysregulation’ was greater in the high risk group and predicted the magnitude of drug use.

14
Q

What is ‘neurobehavioural dysregulation’?

A

A composite score of:

  • Difficult temperament (inflexible, distractible)
  • Conduct disorder; oppositional defiant disorder
  • ADHD
  • Depression
  • Disruptive behaviour (teacher ratings)
  • Impaired executive cognitive function.
15
Q

What are the conclusions that can be drawn from Tarter et all (2003)’s findings?

A

Those at risk of drug use show disorganised behaviour, which may stem from an abnormality in the frontal cortex causing poor decision making.

16
Q

What does Phineas Gage’s case show regarding the link between the frontal cortex and behavioural dysregulation?

A

After his severe frontal lesion, showed unreliability in work, callous disregard, hypersexuality and drank heavily. However had preserved intellectual function, WM and planning.
Suggests that the frontal region is involved in decision making.

17
Q

What task do people with frontal impairment have difficulty with?

A

The Iowa gambling task.

18
Q

What is the Iowa gambling task?

A

4 decks of cards are presented on a computer screen, the goal is to win money. The ‘good’ decks (C and D) have a lower reward ($50) but much lower penalty ($250), the ‘bad’ decks a $100 reward and $1250 penalty.

19
Q

According to Bechara et al (2000), what do people with frontal lesions do on the Iowa gambling task?

A

Opt for high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses.

20
Q

What did Deakin et al (2004) investigate find?

A

That risk-taking behaviour in adolescents and adults (as determined by an automated gambling task) decreases with age.

21
Q

How is frontal cortex development in adolescence related to addiction?

A

That the brain is still developing during adolescence - grey matter decreases as connections are pruned - and is therefore more sensitive to drugs. By the age of 20 the changes drugs caused are more likely to become hardwired as addiction by adulthood.

22
Q

What did Goudriaan et al (2007) find using the Iowa gambling task?

A

That binge drinkers are less likely to select advantageous cards the more they drink.

23
Q

Is risky decision making in adolescence the cause or consequence of addiction?

A

Cause - it is seen before the onset of drug use and can predict onset and magnitude - it’s a vulnerability factor.

24
Q

What is the vicious circle with regard to drug abuse and frontal cortex damage?

A

Drug abuse causes frontal cortex damage, producing decision making deficits and causing further drug abuse - existing frontal cortex damage is exacerbated.

25
Q

What aspects of decision making could explain perseveration in selecting the bad decks in the Iowa task?

A
  • Reward hypersensitivity
  • Punishment insensitivity
  • Faulty error detection.
26
Q

When rewards are detected, what happens in the midbrain and how could this cause addiction?

A

Dopamine cells increase in activity - mesolimbic pathway from VTA to nucleus accumbens is an important part of the ‘reward circuit’, reinforces effect of drugs. Could be hypersensitive in some individuals leading to reward-seeking behaviour.

27
Q

What did Galvan et al (2006) find with regard to reward hypersensitivity and vulnerability?

A

That when receiving rewards, the peak signal change between a small and large reward is much higher in adolescents than it is in children or adults.

28
Q

What did Kenney et al (2006) investigate?

A

Reward hypersensitivity and the maintenance of drug use in rats.

29
Q

What did Kenney et al (2006) find?

A

After chronic heroin exposure, rats showed an increased threshold in their dopamine reward system.

30
Q

What do Kenney et al (2006)’s findings suggest?

A

That chronic drug use causes anhedonia.

31
Q

What is anhedonia?

A

A decrease in reward sensitivity.

32
Q

In what way is anhedonia believed to motivate drug use?

A

Drugs become the only thing that can quickly correct or improve (negative reinforcement) dopamine levels.

33
Q

In what way do drug addicts differ from drug users?

A

They persist with drug use despite knowledge of harm it is causing.

34
Q

What did Deroshe-Gamonet et al (2004) do to investigate punishment insensitivity?

A
  • Trained rats to self-administer cocaine, then 30 day time out period.
  • Presented a previously paired cue, which reinstated responding (relapse)
  • Divided rats into addicted and casual group depending on reinstatement effect
  • Punishment test - lever = cocaine+foot shock
  • Addicted group showed smaller reduction in cocaine seeking behaviour.
35
Q

What do Deroshe-Gamonet et al (2004)’s findings suggest?

A

That punishment insensitivity is associated with vulnerability to drug addiction.

36
Q

In what way might error detection affect vulnerability to addiction?

A

Addicts may have full knowledge of the adverse consequences of their addiction but not be able to use the knowledge to correct the behaviour.

37
Q

What can an ERP design be used to measure?

A

The response of cocaine addicts to errors in their performance.

38
Q

What did Franken et al (2007) investigate?

A

Whether cocaine addicts had a brain abnormality affecting error detection.

39
Q

What did Franken et al (2007) do?

A

Presented pts with a letter string for 52ms, had to detect whether the central letter was an S or an H. Told whether correct or not.

40
Q

What did Franken et al (2007) find?

A

That cocaine addicts showed a reduced frontal negativity in response to errors and less post-error improvement in performance.

41
Q

What do Franken et al (2007)’s findings suggest?

A

That addicts may have less knowledge of the adverse consequences of their behaviour and so be less able to modify their behaviour accordingly.

42
Q

What do findings regarding reward hypersensitivity, punishment insensitivity and faulty error detection imply for treatment?

A

That we should aim to strengthen addicts’ knowledge of the adverse consequences of their behaviour.

43
Q

Approximately what percentage of US households admitted illicit drug use in 1999?

A

About 5%. Had stayed steady for past 10 years or so.

44
Q

According to the British Crime Surveys in 1996 and 2001/2, which drugs have significantly increased and decreased over that time?

A

Amphetamines decreased, LSD decreased, cocaine increased, overall drug use about the same.

45
Q

What have US referrals suggested about the variability of drug use between 1982 and 1990?

A

Heroin has decreased and cocaine increased.

46
Q

About what percentage of the UK population drink more than the RDA for alcohol?

A

40% males, just over 20% for females.

47
Q

What are the RDAs for alcohol?

A

Males: 3-4 units/day
Females: 2-3 units/day

48
Q

What do exposure theories of addiction state?

A

That:

  • All individuals are at risk given sufficient exposure.
  • Brains interact with and change the brain, creating continued motivation.
  • Theories differ on what changes drugs produce and what sort of motivation drives subsequent drug use.
49
Q

What type of addiction theory is most common?

A

Exposure theories.

50
Q

What does Wikler (1965)’s withdrawal theory state?

A
  • Withdrawal symptoms (esp. w/opiates) are a significant barrier to abstinence due to negative reinforcement.
  • The experience of aversive withdrawal is main motivating factor in addiction.
51
Q

What is a key criticism of withdrawal theory?

A
  • Medical supervision of withdrawal not that successful in engendering long term abstinence - relapse.
52
Q

What did Wikler propose to explain relapse after medical supervision of (primary) withdrawal?

A

Withdrawal could become (classically) conditioned to external cues (e.g. environment) so that exposure to the cues would elicit withdrawal and precipitate relapse.

53
Q

What did O’Brian (1997) investigate?

A

Conditioned withdrawal.

54
Q

What did O’Brian (1997) do?

A

Gave volunteers on methadone maintenance naloxone to precipitate opiate withdrawal (temp. drop) and simultaneously presented a peppermint odour several times, until on test trial peppermint alone produced temperature drop.

55
Q

What have anecdotal accounts suggested about conditioned withdrawal?

A

That relapse is caused by:

  • Immediate possibility to purchase drug
  • Proximity of contexts in which drugs previously taken
  • NOT by withdrawal contexts - USE.
56
Q

What is the difference between conditioning in a real life an experimental situation?

A

In real life, there’s often a delay between the UCS and CS.

57
Q

What theory did Solomon and Corbit (1973) propose?

A

The opponent-process model of motivation.

58
Q

What does the opponent-process model of motivation suggest about stimuli responses?

A
  • Any stimulus that provokes an initial strong affective reaction has an opposing affective response experienced after the initial stimulus ends.
  • For drug abuse, primary (a) = high, subsequent (b) = withdrawal.
59
Q

What does the opponent-process model of motivation suggest about repeated presentations of a stimulus?

A
  • The a process remains unchanged, but the b process increases in magnitude and duration and latency decreases.
  • Therefore the drug-induced euphoria is diminished and withdrawal syndrome exacerbated.
60
Q

What major changes to the opponent-process model of motivation did Koob and Le Moal (1997) suggest?

A
  • That process a may be sensitised and b unchanged.

- That the hedonic set point is lowered, causing dysphoria in the absence of drugs.

61
Q

What did Siegel et al (1982) find (using rats) in relation to drug overdose?

A
  • That environmental cues associated with drug taking can elicit a ‘drug opposite’ response, making death more likely in a novel environment.
  • The response may be aversive and motivate drug taking - negative reinforcement.
62
Q

What is a problem with negative reinforcement theory according to Hogarth et al (2010)?

A
  • Drug cues motivating consumption are rated as pleasant, not aversive.
  • They prime drug taking by reminding the addict of the positive qualities of the drug.