Additional Questions Flashcards Preview

Grade 11 Bio > Additional Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Additional Questions Deck (45):
1

What is a prokaryotic cell?

Basic cell found in bacteria

Lacking organelles and a nucleus

2

What is a eukaryotic cell?

More complex cell found in fungi, plant, and animal cells

Contain organelles

Has specialized functions

3

What is the food mass called after it leaves the stomach?

Chyme

4

What is the food mass called after it leaves the mouth?

Bolus

5

What is the name of the ring of muscles that controls food entry into the stomach?

The gastroesophagal sphincter

6

Where is bile made?

The liver

7

Where is bile stored before it enters the duodenum?

The gallbladder

8

What is the function of bile?

Bile is needed for the digestion and absorption of fats

9

What enzyme is active in the stomach?

Pepsin

10

What structures release pepsinogen in the stomach?

Chief cells!

11

List, in order the three parts of the small intestine

Duodenum, jejunum and ileum

12

What is Hypertonic?

High concentration of water

13

Hypotonic is...?

An area of low concentration

14

Isotonic means???

Equal areas of concentration in both sides

15

Where does protein digestion take place?

In the stomach and duodenum

16

What chemicals are needed for protein digestion?

Pepsin, Trypsin and Erepsin

17

Where does fat digestion take place?

In the stomach and duodenum

18

What chemicals are required for fat digestion?

HCl, Bile, Pancreatic Lipase, and Intestinal Lipase

19

Define mechanical digestion

Involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces

20

Define chemical digestion

Decomposing material by the action of enzymes and bacteria

21

Technical term for platelets is...?

Thrombocytes

22

What is atherosclerosis?

When plaque builds up in the arteries

23

Arteriosclerosis is...?

When plaque builds up in the coronary arteries

24

What are the three components of blood?

Red blood cells, plasma, and the Buffy coat

25

What is in plasma?

Water, salt, enzymes, antibodies and proteins

26

Technical name for red blood cells?

Erythrocytes

27

Name two possible causes of abnormally alkaline urine?

High levels of ammonia or a UTI

28

Water leaves the nephron from these three places?

Glomerulus, Loop of Henle and the DCT

29

The GE opening is controlled by...?

The cardiac sphincter

30

What makes Lactose?

Glucose and Galactose

31

What is the function of the Krypts of Lieberkuhn?

Digestive glands that release intestinal juice.

32

What is the function of cuboidal cells?

They increase the absorption area of nutrients

33

What element is found in every organic molecule?

Carbon

34

How many bonds can carbon form?

4

35

What is the name for 10 monosaccharides bonded together?

Polysaccharide

36

What are proteins made up of?

Amino acids

37

What factors increase blood pressure?

Obesity
Substance abuse
Kidney disease
Stress
Burst blood vessels

38

What is a heart attack?

The result of coronary heart disease. When a portion of the heart dies because of plaque buildup and blood clots.

39

What are the 4 types of blood?

A
B
AB
O

40

Which blood type is the universal donor?

O-

41

Which blood type is the universal recipient?

AB

42

What makes the pulmonary artery different different from all the other arteries?

The pulmonary artery pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to become oxygenated

43

Where does the carbon dioxide in the blood come from?

Carbon dioxide is a by-product of cellular respiration.

44

What is the resting heart rate of the average person?

60 to 100 beats per minute

45

How is respiration controlled?

With the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm.