The adrenal glands are ____________ in location
The Adrenal glands are RETROPERITONEAL in location.
What is often mistaken for adrenals?
Crus of the Diaphragm. This is the diaphragm attachment
Adrenal gland cortex appears how on ultrasound?
- *Less echogenic than the surrounding retroperitoneal fat.
* *Hypoechoic compared to the medulla.
The Medulla appears how on ultrasound?
- *Seen as a more echogenic linear structure within the adrenal gland
- *Hyperechoic compared to cortex
The cortex produces what?
The cortex produces steroid/sex hormones
- Androgens in males
- Estrogen in femails
The Medulla produces what?
The Meduulla produces
- Epinephrine (adrenalin)
- Norepinephrine (noradrenalin)
What is the most common shape of the Right adrenal gland?
What is the most common shape of the left adrenal gland?
CT is a good imaging modality to view adrenal masses, but the risk of CT is what?
High dose of radiation
MRI picks up most Masses in the Adrenal gland and is almost as good as what?
MRI is almost as good as a biopsy of pheochromocytoma
What imaging modality is good only for Pheochromocytoma?
Nuclear medicine (MIBG scan)
>is what kind of tumor?
- Increased epinephrine (excess adrenalin) or norephinephrine
> Is what kind of Tumor?
Malignant tumor of the Medulla in children
> Hyperaldosteronism - excess aldosterone
—Hyper-functioning cortex due to stimulation from PITUITARY TUMOR— EXCESS CORTISOL PRODUCTION from to much ACTH from the pituitary—
—Hyper-functioning cortex = INCREASED SEX HORMONES
> Causes what?
> Most common cause?
Adrenal insufficiency - atrophic cortex
- In males TB is main causes
- In females the cause is idiopathic
Hyperechoic, small, solid, benign mass, difficult to visualize
-Note; someone can have an adenoma and not have Conn’s.
Anechoic, round in both plans, good through transmission
Adrenocortical Carcinoma characteristics
Aggressive tumor, could invade renal veins, IVC, etc.
Along Aorta(elevating SMA), Iliacs, etc.
Normal lymph-node characteristics
< 1cm of 3cm in groin