Adult Health - Module 9 Flashcards Preview

Nursing > Adult Health - Module 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adult Health - Module 9 Deck (46):
1

Lack of Peristalsis

Absent bowel sounds for 5 minutes in each quadrant

2

Sunken abdomen indicates

Malnutrition

3

Rebound tenderness indicates

Peritoneal irritation

4

RUQ pain indicates

Acute cholecystitis

5

Upper middle pain indicates

Acute pancreatitis

6

RLQ pain indicates

Acute appendicitis

7

LLQ pain indicates

Acute diverticulitis

8

GI Labs

CMP (Complete metabolic panel)
CBC
Liver Enzymes
Pancreatic Enzymes
Stool culture

9

CMP

Complete metabolic panel. Check K+, Na+, Mg+, BUN, Creatinine.

10

Liver Enzymes

AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase

11

Pancreatic enzymes

Amylase/Lipase

12

Normal lab values for Liver Enzymes

AST: 0-35 units/L
ALT: 4-36 units/L
ALP: 30-120 units/L

13

Normal lab values for Pancreatic Enzymes

Amylase: 6.6-35.2 units/kg
Lipase: 0-160 units/L

14

Stool culture purpose

Assess blood, mucus, WBC, or parasites in feces.

15

Which disease is diagnosed with stool sample?

C-dif.

16

Upper GI diagnostic tests

Fluoroscopy and X-ray.
Interventions: Contrast Medium and patient should be NPO for 8 hours. Educate that stool may be white for 72 hours

17

Lower GI diagnostic tests

Fluoroscopy of colon and X-ray to find polyps, tumors, and lesions.
Interventions: Uses Contrast medium and administer laxatives/Barium enemas to clear the bowels. Elderly/Immobile do not tolerate this type of test well.

18

Abdominal Ultrasound

Identify size/configuration of organs, gallstones, and appendicitis.
Interventions: NPO for eight hours

19

CT scan

Combo of X-ray machines/diff depth exposure.
Interventions: Iodine sensitivity and educate patient that contrast will make them warm and feel like they peed their pants.

20

MRI

Noninvasive and uses radiofrequency and magnetic waves to detect metastasis, bleeding, and distinguish tumors.
Interventions: SCREEN FOR METAL. obtain screening form

21

Endoscopy tests

EGD/Colonoscopy. Patients receive MAC

22

EGD

Gives direct visualization of Esophagus Gastrium Duodenum (EGD).
Interventions: Signed consent, educate about anesthetic in throat/sedation to insert scope. After procedure, NPO until gag reflex returns and check vitals (sudden spike of temp indicates perforation which is LIFE THREATENING)

23

Colonoscopy

Direct visualization of the colon.
Interventions: Laxatives/enemas, NPO, and educate about sedation with scope inserted in rectum. After procedure, Check rectal bleeding, perforation, and vitals.

24

PUD

Peptic ulcer disease. Erosion of the mucosal surface and 80% are duodenal.

25

PUD causes

H. Pyloria and NSAIDs-induced injury

26

PUD assessment

Anxiety, tenderness, pain, N/V and possible bleeding

27

PUD diagnosis

Endoscopy. CBC, Liver enzymes (amylase), stool studies

28

PUD interventions

DO NOT TAKE ASPIRIN/NSAIDS

29

PUD meds

Analgesics, H2 receptors, Antacids, Sulcralfate (short term use to protect stomach lining), and antibiotics (ONLY if caused by H. pylori)

30

GERD symptoms

Dyspepsia, heartburn, hypersalivation, chest pain

31

GERD diagnosis

Barium swallow, endoscopy

32

GERD meds

Anti-ulcer, PPI/H2RA

33

GERD diet

Avoid fatty foods, chocolate, alcohol, mints, and citrus.

34

Nissen Fundoplication

Antireflux surgery in GERD to restructure the stomach. Uses fundus to wrap around.

35

Hiatal hernia

Distorted intrathoracic pressure causing reflex

36

Hiatal hernia diagnosis

Barium swalow, Upper GI X-ray (visualize lower esophagus). 90% are sliding hiatal hernias in which the stomach slides into the thoracic cavity.

37

Hiatal hernia symptoms

similiar to GERD. Heartburn, pain

38

Hiatal hernia meds

Antiulcer, PPI's, H2RA, and antacids (to remove ulcers).

39

Hiatal hernia diet

Same as GERD. Avoid fatty foods, chocolate, alcohol, but adding on CAFFEINE.

40

Upper GI bleed symptoms

Hematemesis (vomiting blood/coffee ground), Hematochezia (bright red stool with unstable VS) and Melena (black, tarry, foul-smelling stool).

41

Upper GI bleed diagnosis

H/H not best indicator even though its bleeding.
Instead, primary source is endoscopy
occult blood stool testing,
increased BUN (from blood digestion)
CBC, PT/INR
Serum electrolytes
Liver Enzymes
Type and Cross Match

42

Upper GI bleed interventions

IV/blood products for volume loss, NG tube to monitor. Monitor I/O, ECG, and mucous membrane assessment. AVOID ASPIRIN/NSAIDS

43

Rolling hernia

Fundus forms pocket/esophagus.

44

Mechanical vs Nonmechanical Obstruction

Mechanical: Occlusion of intestinal lumen (hernia/tumor)
Nonmechanical: Neuromuscular disorder (Paralytic illeus, peritonitis)

45

Antibiotic meds for Small bowel obstruction

Flagyl/Cipro

46

Small bowel obstruction Interventions

NPO, Ng tube to empty stomach, antibiotics (Flagyl/Cipro), Surgery, antiemetics, AMBULATION