Flashcards in Adult Health - Module 9 Deck (46):
Lack of Peristalsis
Absent bowel sounds for 5 minutes in each quadrant
Sunken abdomen indicates
Rebound tenderness indicates
RUQ pain indicates
Upper middle pain indicates
RLQ pain indicates
LLQ pain indicates
CMP (Complete metabolic panel)
Complete metabolic panel. Check K+, Na+, Mg+, BUN, Creatinine.
AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase
Normal lab values for Liver Enzymes
AST: 0-35 units/L
ALT: 4-36 units/L
ALP: 30-120 units/L
Normal lab values for Pancreatic Enzymes
Amylase: 6.6-35.2 units/kg
Lipase: 0-160 units/L
Stool culture purpose
Assess blood, mucus, WBC, or parasites in feces.
Which disease is diagnosed with stool sample?
Upper GI diagnostic tests
Fluoroscopy and X-ray.
Interventions: Contrast Medium and patient should be NPO for 8 hours. Educate that stool may be white for 72 hours
Lower GI diagnostic tests
Fluoroscopy of colon and X-ray to find polyps, tumors, and lesions.
Interventions: Uses Contrast medium and administer laxatives/Barium enemas to clear the bowels. Elderly/Immobile do not tolerate this type of test well.
Identify size/configuration of organs, gallstones, and appendicitis.
Interventions: NPO for eight hours
Combo of X-ray machines/diff depth exposure.
Interventions: Iodine sensitivity and educate patient that contrast will make them warm and feel like they peed their pants.
Noninvasive and uses radiofrequency and magnetic waves to detect metastasis, bleeding, and distinguish tumors.
Interventions: SCREEN FOR METAL. obtain screening form
EGD/Colonoscopy. Patients receive MAC
Gives direct visualization of Esophagus Gastrium Duodenum (EGD).
Interventions: Signed consent, educate about anesthetic in throat/sedation to insert scope. After procedure, NPO until gag reflex returns and check vitals (sudden spike of temp indicates perforation which is LIFE THREATENING)
Direct visualization of the colon.
Interventions: Laxatives/enemas, NPO, and educate about sedation with scope inserted in rectum. After procedure, Check rectal bleeding, perforation, and vitals.
Peptic ulcer disease. Erosion of the mucosal surface and 80% are duodenal.
H. Pyloria and NSAIDs-induced injury
Anxiety, tenderness, pain, N/V and possible bleeding
Endoscopy. CBC, Liver enzymes (amylase), stool studies
DO NOT TAKE ASPIRIN/NSAIDS
Analgesics, H2 receptors, Antacids, Sulcralfate (short term use to protect stomach lining), and antibiotics (ONLY if caused by H. pylori)
Dyspepsia, heartburn, hypersalivation, chest pain
Barium swallow, endoscopy
Avoid fatty foods, chocolate, alcohol, mints, and citrus.
Antireflux surgery in GERD to restructure the stomach. Uses fundus to wrap around.
Distorted intrathoracic pressure causing reflex
Hiatal hernia diagnosis
Barium swalow, Upper GI X-ray (visualize lower esophagus). 90% are sliding hiatal hernias in which the stomach slides into the thoracic cavity.
Hiatal hernia symptoms
similiar to GERD. Heartburn, pain
Hiatal hernia meds
Antiulcer, PPI's, H2RA, and antacids (to remove ulcers).
Hiatal hernia diet
Same as GERD. Avoid fatty foods, chocolate, alcohol, but adding on CAFFEINE.
Upper GI bleed symptoms
Hematemesis (vomiting blood/coffee ground), Hematochezia (bright red stool with unstable VS) and Melena (black, tarry, foul-smelling stool).
Upper GI bleed diagnosis
H/H not best indicator even though its bleeding.
Instead, primary source is endoscopy
occult blood stool testing,
increased BUN (from blood digestion)
Type and Cross Match
Upper GI bleed interventions
IV/blood products for volume loss, NG tube to monitor. Monitor I/O, ECG, and mucous membrane assessment. AVOID ASPIRIN/NSAIDS
Fundus forms pocket/esophagus.
Mechanical vs Nonmechanical Obstruction
Mechanical: Occlusion of intestinal lumen (hernia/tumor)
Nonmechanical: Neuromuscular disorder (Paralytic illeus, peritonitis)
Antibiotic meds for Small bowel obstruction