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Flashcards in AEP - PPD Personal Cards Deck (182)
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In PPD, topography is generally concerned with:

Surface conditions


What are some ways topography matters in PPD?

- Grading: is the site level and flat or hilly and sloped

- Vehicular access to the site: how easy is it for cars to reach the site? Do roads already lead to the site? Can construction vehicles access the site?

- Utilities access: are utilities available at the property line or 1,000 yards away? Are there power poles blocking views or vehicular access?

- Features of the site: are there any rock outcroppings, cliffs, grassy meadows, wooded and forested areas?

- Bodies of water: are there wetlands, ponds, lakes, streams or rivers on the site?

- Views: are there any significant views to the lake, ocean, city lights, wooded areas?


What is grading?

It is associated with moving portions of the earth to make a site level, or a site with a specific slope.


What is the difference between "rough grading" and "finish grading"?

"Rough grading" is often done with heavy equipment such as bulldozers.

"Finish grading" is often accomplished using a grader.


What are general rules of thumb for the following slope conditions:

- Flat
- Moderate
- Steep
- Very steep
- Accessible ramps
- Roadways
- Parking lots
- Grass areas

- Flat: less than 4% (suitable for all activities)
- Moderate: between 4% and 10% (requires some effort to climb or descend)
- Steep: between 10% and 50% (suitable for limited activity only)
- Very steep: over 50% (subject to soil erosion or collapse)
- Accessible ramps: 1:12 or 8.3%
- Roadways: should not exceed 10%. A 15% slope approaches the limit a vehicle can climb for a sustained period of time.
- Parking lots: should not exceed 5% (2.5% is preferred)
- Grass areas: should not exceed 25%


The more perpendicular the sun rays, the _____ the amount of solar radiation received.



Define azimuth.

The angle between the sun's vertical height and the horizon.

In the summer it is a larger angle and more perpendicular, thus more radiation is received.


How does slope of the site relate to solar?

The slope of the site affects the amount of solar energy it receives.

The angle between the ground surface and the direction of the sun's rays is greater if the ground slopes to the south than if it is level. Hence south sloping sites receive more radiation than north sloping sites.


How does the water table affect the foundation?

It determines:

- the type of foundation;
- the depth of the foundation;
- the type of waterproofing;
- if a basement is possible


What is a high water table?

If subsurface water is within 6' below the surface.


What happens in cold climates with a high water table?

The water can freeze , and if it does, it expands as it freezes.

The wrong type of foundation could crack or settle if the water table freezes and pushes it upward.


What is seepage?

Water penetration with concrete foundations, due to capillary action.


What are the five climatic conditions architects should be aware of?

Temperature: Our comfort zone ranges between 63-71 in winter and 66-75 in summer.

Humidity: The amount of water vapor in the air. Comfortable ranges are from 30 to 60 percent.

Wind: hazards can include hurricanes, tornadoes, and windstorms. Prevailing wind patterns should be considered.

Rainfall: most important concern related to rainfall is storm water runoff and management to prevent flooding.

Snowfall: snow loads on structures and snow removal strategies; also concerns for water runoff from snowmelt.


What is the difference between "climate" and "weather"?

Climate describes general trends.

Weather describes the specific weather on a given day.


What affects the macroclimate?

Site latitude; site elevation; prevailing winds; proximity to water; proximity to mountains; topography.


What are the four primary climate zones?

Cool; Temperate; Arid; Tropical


What is the difference between Albedo and Conductivity?

Albedo is a measure of the reflectivity of a material. Snow has a high albedo, grass has a low albedo.

Conductivity refers to material's ability to absorb light.

Grass areas have low albedo (they reflect less) and have high conductivity (absorb more) and therefore are cooler than nearby paved areas.


What are some ways to mitigate site noise?

Use vegetation; site walls; or have smaller wall openings on that side of the building.


What are some benefits of trees and vegetation?

- Trees can be used to screen or direct wind on the site.

- Tress and vegetation absorbs sunlight and adds humidity to the air, cooling the site around the building.

- Planted areas are cooler during hot days and have less heat loss during the night.

- Trees are often used to shade the south and west facing sides of the building.

- Deciduous trees block out direct sunlight in the summer while allowing it to pass through in the winter.

- Coniferous trees block wind and views.


Names ways to mitigate or limit disturbance to flora.

- Designate no disturbance zones.
- Re-plant disturbed areas to another area of the site.
- Minimize disturbance to natural water or food supply on site.
- Plant native or indigenous species.
- Avoid invasive plants to help protect existing vegetation.
- Use/Employ a conservation easement.


What is a Conservation Easement?

A Conservation Easement is a legal protection of a portion of the site to ensure that no future development will ever occur on it.

A Conservation Easement may also provide certain tax benefits.


Name ways to mitigate or limit disturbance to fauna.

- Designate no disturbance zones.
- Minimize disturbance to natural water or food supply on site.
- Minimize night site lighting to not disturb fauna.
- Maintain wildlife/use corridors through the site.
- Use/Employ a conservation easement.


Name ways you can increase the bearing capacity of soil?

Compaction; Fill; Surcharging.


Name and order (by size) the different types of soil.

From largest to smallest (size): Gravel; Sand; Silt; Clay.

Organic material - must be removed.


Name and state key aspects of each soil type.

- Gravel: drains well, able to bear loads
- Sand: drains well, good foundation when graded.
- Silt: stable when dry or damp, not when wet. Swells when frozen.
- Clay: plastic when wet, stiff when dry. Poor drainage, can be highly expansive.


Name some general rules of thumb about boring tests.

- Placed 100-500 feet apart for uniform conditions.
- 50' apart for large structures.
- Placed with one at each building corner and one in the center of the proposed building.
- Should extend 20' beyond firm strata.


What is the difference between Safe Bearing Capacity and Ultimate Bearing Capacity?

Safe Bearing Capacity: ultimate bearing capacity of the soil divided by a safety factor of 2 to 4 times.

Ultimate Bearing Capacity: maximum unit pressure to which the foundation soil may be subjected without detrimental settlement.


Name the basic vehicular routes and in order from High to Low intensity.

Freeways > Arterial Streets (Highways) > Collector/Distributor Streets > Local Streets


What is the area covered by a person standing still?

~ 3 square feet


As a general rule of thumb, what should a ...
- sidewalk's width be?
- collector walkways (handling larger number of people) be?

Sidewalk: not less than 5'

Collector walkway: at least 6' to 10'