Flashcards in Project Planning & Design 2 Deck (48)
What is the difference between recycled and reclaimed material?
Recycling materials uses less energy than producing virgin (new) materials. Although many materials can be recycled, commonly recycled materials include: metals, glass, and plastic.
Reclaimed materials avoid the need for recycling. Instead, they are simply salvaged, cleaned up and used over again.
What site issues will be affected by the zoning code?
Building type (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.)
Allowable building heights.
Any required setbacks from property lines, rights-of-ways, streets and sidewalks.
When and why was the first zoning code introduced?
The need for zoning began with the growth of our cities in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries when it quickly became clear that cities like New York would soon have streets with limited access to light and air.
The first modern zoning code was introduced in New Your City in 1916. As the buildings grew taller and taller, the lack of access to sunlight and air threatened the surrounding property values. While earlier covenants and restrictions had been used for residential development, zoning addresses all land development.
Identify four purposes for the development of a zoning code.
- Protect local residents from undesirable types of business.
- Protect the access to direct sunlight and fresh air.
- Protect the amount of open space for local residents.
- Ensure incompatible types of building uses do not disturb residents (ie: putting a loud factory next to a quiet library).
What is "non-conforming use" and when would this term apply?
Any good zoning code must also allow for buildings that may have been permitted or allowed when built, but now no longer comply with the current zoning regulations. This is called a "non-conforming use" and is often described as a building being "grandfathered in."
An example of this would be an industrial factory building built in 1920, but today is in an area marked for residential or commercial zoning. In this case, the factory could be able to continue operating in that location.
Describe a "conditional use permit."
If you wish to build or use a building for a purpose not granted in the zoning code, you can apply for a "conditional use permit." This grants you the ability to use the building for your proposed use, even though the zoning code normally would not allow it.
This use is typically granted with certain restrictions and may not be transferable to a new owner.
How does a variance affect the zoning code applicable to a particular site?
Since, by its very nature, a zoning code places general requirements over an entire area, the unique needs for each individual property sometimes requires an exception called a "variance."
A variance is a request to break from some of the requirements of zoning (maximum height, minimum setbacks, etc.), because complying with these requirements would create financial hardship or practical construction challenges.
For example, the local zoning code requires your building to be no more than 30 feet in height, but your property is on a steeply sloping street and needs additional height to work. In this case, you could apply for a variance to exceed the height limitation. Variance requests are often overheard by a Zoning Board or Planning Commission.
What is the main intent and purpose of building codes?
In the broadest sense, building codes are design to protect the health, safety and welfare of the occupants.
As such, codes are set requirements for life safety issues such as: fire protection (sprinklers, fireproofing) or egress requirements (hallway width, stairwell layout, etc.).
Name five items the building department will review for during the plan check process.
- Construction standards of care (nailing patterns, connections);
- Structural and seismic requirements (shear walls, bolting, lateral forces);
- Hurricane requirements (impact strength, roof shingle attachment);
- Accessibility Guidelines (wheelchair ramps, handrails);
- Safety (guardrails, stair nosing);
- Health standards (ventilation, fresh air needs);
- Sanitation requirements (pipe locations and size, water supply);
- Assembly (room location and sizes);
- Electrical (wiring safety, outlet locations, circuit breakers);
- Fireplace requirements (smoke dampers, ventilation requirements, glass doors)
- Energy efficiency requirements (minimum insulation, window sizes, orientation)
- Water efficiency requirements (low flow toilets, plumbing flow rates);
- Egress and exiting requirements (exit signage, hallway length & width);
- Fire protection (sprinklers, smoke/fire dampers, standpipes)
What US city has adopted and uses its own building code?
The City of Chicago remains the only municipality in the US that continues to use a building code they developed on their own (Municipal Code of Chicago).
What are four standardized national codes used to create the building codes adopted by municipalities?
1) Uniform Building Code (UBC)
2) Building Officials Code Administrators (BOCA)
3) International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO)
4) Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI)
The International Building Code (IBC): is new and first produced in 2000 by the International Code Council (ICC). It combines the three model building codes published by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI.
How can the concept of "non-conforming use" either benefit or hinder the design of a site?
Any good zoning code must also allow for buildings that may have been permitted or allowed when built, but now no longer comply with the current zoning regulations.
This is called a "non-conforming use" and is often described as a building being "grandfathered in."
An example of this would be an industrial factory being built in 1920, but today is in an area marked for residential or commercial zoning.
In this case, the factory could be able to continue operating in that location.
In zoning terms, what is the purpose of building setbacks?
Setbacks were created in order to ensure buildings have access to light and air.
Setbacks are standards that the building "sets back" from the property line by a certain amount.
Describe how to calculate the FAR of your site.
The ratio of the allowable floor area in relation to the size of the property. An FAR of 2.0 would mean that you are allowed to build twice the lot area.
For example, if a zoning ordinance requires a site to have a 0.5 FAR, then the total area of all floors in all buildings constructed on the site may not exceed half the are of the site itself.
What building spaces are sometimes allowed to fall outside of zoning height restrictions.
Penthouses, fan rooms, and skylights are sometimes allowed to exceed height restrictions.
Describe a Prescriptive Code.
A code that specifies specific techniques, materials, and methods allowed for use.
Simple to administer, but the specific code allows for no innovation.
What is a Performance Code and how does it differ from a Prescriptive Code?
A code that describes functional requirements that meet a certain standard, allowing the architect to find ways to meet those standards.
The open nature of the code promotes innovation whereas a prescriptive code does not.
Name the 10 occupancy groups found in most building codes.
(F) Factory & Industrial
(H) High Hazard
(U) Utility & Miscellaneous
How does the construction type constrict the design of a building/site?
Classified according to degree of Fire resistance, determined by the fire zone it is located in and intended use, influences the height, floor area, and materials.
How is type of construction classified?
Type of construction is classified according to the degree of fire resistance, determined by the fire zone it is located in. The intended use influences the height, floor area and materials.
What are the Occupancy Group Classifications for: Assembly, Educational, High Hazard, Mercantile, Storage?
High Hazard: H
What are the Occupancy Group Classifications for: Business, Factory & Industrial, Institutional, Residential, Utility & Miscellaneous?
Factory & Industrial: F
Utility & Miscellaneous: U
What are the 5 Types of Construction?
Type I - FIRE RESISTIVE: concrete or protected steel. Typically found in high-rise buildings.
Type II - NON-COMBUSTIBLE: reinforced masonry with metal framing at roof. Typically found in mid-rise office building.
Type III - COMBUSTIBLE: also called "ordinary" using brick, block or light gauge steel framing walls with wood framing at roof. Typically found in low-rise, schools, hotels, offices.
Type IV - HEAVY TIMBER: also called "Mill" construction, wood must be nominally 8" or larger. Typically found in warehouse buildings.
Type V - WOOD FRAME: used on apartment buildings and single-family homes.
What are the 5 steps for a building code analysis?
1) Determine the Occupancy Group and Load.
2) Identify the Fire Areas and Separation Requirements.
3) Identify the Type of Construction.
4) Determine the Means of Egress.
5) Determine the System Requirements.
In regards to life safety, what are high-rise buildings required to have?
- Automatic sprinkler system;
- Smoke detectors and alarms;
- Communication systems in the areas of refuge;
- Central control stations for fire department use;
- Smoke control for exit stair enclosures;
- Standby power systems
What is the buildable line or buildable area?
The imaginary line beyond which a structure is not allowed to extend.
What causes the greatest damage to buildings during an earthquake?
What is ADA?
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a set of prescriptive guidelines developed in 1990 for the construction (or alteration) of buildings to accommodate the needs of "persons with disabilities."
Is the American with Disabilities Act a part of the Building Code?
Technically speaking, ADA is not part of the building code because it does not address life safety. Instead, the ADA is a civil rights law passed by Congress.