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Flashcards in Aerial Apparatus Ch. 6 Deck (75):
1

In most cases, there are _______ for the positioning of aerial apparatus

No hard and fast rules

2

The process of positioning the apparatus at an actual fire incident will be at the discretion of ___________, ___________, or _______________ and influenced by _________________.

the Incident commander, truck company officer, or the driver/operator ; conditions of the fire ground

3

Aerial apparatus placement on the fire ground is critically important because aerial devices and ladders ____________________.

have a fixed, maximum length

4

Pumpers and other fire apparatus may carry_______ of fire hose and can attach more length if they need to be positioned at a great distance from the fire.

1000 ft (300 m)

5

Many fire agencies have developed ____________ that assist with the orderly placement of aerial apparatus on the fire ground.

standard operating procedures

6

Generally, these standard operating procedures apply to aerial apparatus that are assigned to the ___________ to an emergency.

Initial response

7

Later-arriving aerial apparatus at large incidents will be positioned according to ____________ the incident management personnel develops at the scene.

Incident Action plans (IAP)

8

In many cases, the development of apparatus placement procedures should be a function of _______________.

Pre-incident planning

9

Fire departments use many different procedures for positioning aerial apparatus assigned to the initial response, including the following three examples:

1. When two aerials respond to a given location, the first-arriving aerial takes __________ and the second goes to____________, depending on building access.

2. When two aerials respond to a given location, the first aerial's position is based the___________ . The second aerial ________ or in accordance with departmental SOPs and awaits instructions.

3. When a single aerial apparatus responds to a given location, the apparatus takes a strategically sound location _________ of the fire building unless otherwise directed by the Incident Commander. For example, the apparatus may be centered in front of the involved portion of the building for offensive operations or _______________ (out of the collapse zone) for defensive operations.

the front of the building ; the rear or side

present conditions; stages one block away

in front ; at a corner of the building

10

Some fire departments establish an SOP about apparatus placement based upon the __________ at the scene.

For example, if the fire building is_______________, engine companies should park on the side closest to the building, and aerial apparatus should park on the outside.

The philosophy here is that the building is low enough to be reached by the aerial device even if it has to go over the closer engines.

If the building is_________________, the engines take the outside position and the aerials park next to the building.

This allows the aerial’s maximum reach.

This procedure also assumes that the department is operating aerial devices
with a reach of ______ feet

height of the building

less than five stories (about 60 feet)

greater than five stories (more than 60 feet)

100

11

For any given situation, the proper distance between the objective and the aerial apparatus is the distance that affords ___________, ___________, and _____________.

the maximum stability, the best climbing angle, and adequate extension

12

_____________ place the maximum amount of stress on an aerial device and, in some cases, reduce the load carrying capacity of that device.

Long extensions at low angles

13

_____________ affects the distance that the aerial device may be positioned from the building.

The condition of the fire building

14

Possible stress to the aerial device can also have an impact on where the apparatus should be positioned.

Stresses are those factors that ____________ of the aerial device.

Stress may be imposed in both ________ and _________operation.

The stress tends to be greater when the aerial device ____________.

work against the strength

static and dynamic (in motion)

is in motion

15

Aerial device stress can occur from one or a combination of the following conditions:
• Excessive___________, both horizontal and vertical, measured from the truck's center line axis
• Operation in ____________ (uphill, downhill, or lateral grades)
• Operation in _________ vs __________ positions
• Length of _______________
• _________ from elevated master stream
• ________/________ of hose, water, personnel, and/or equipment on the aerial device
•________ reaction
• __________ of the aerial device (sudden starts and stops, rough operation of hydraulic controls)

degree of angle

nonparallel positions

supported vs. unsupported

aerial device extension

Nozzle reaction

Weight and/or movement

Wind

Improper operation

16

Tactical Considerations for Aerial Positioning
• ________ exposure (radiant and convection)

• _____ on ladder or platform

•_________ with the building or other object

• Improper ______________

• ________ caused by road travel

Heat

Ice

Impact

stabilization

Wear

17

There are four main tactical uses for any aerial device (excluding water towers):

_________, ____________, ____________, and ______________.

rescue, access to upper levels, ventilation, and fire suppression.

18

RESCUE
The best rescue approach is made from_______, so consequently the apparatus should be parked so that the aerial device turntable is ________ of the target.

If possible, the driver/operator should position aerial apparatus used for rescue ______________.

This positioning allows rescuers to use the aerial device to reach victims on two sides of the building and is a less vulnerable position in the event that a structural collapse occurs.

Upwind; upwind

at the corner of the building

19

RESCUE
If a rescue is to be made from an area threatened by fire, hoselines can be used to protect the victims, rescuers, and the aerial device.

If these protective hoselines are needed, caution must be used when selecting the fire stream for the lines.

__________ or __________ directed against an aerial device can place damaging load stresses on the device that could ultimately result in a collapse of the device, especially if other factors such as wind or icing conditions are also present.

The preferred procedure is to use a ___________ to push the heat or fire away from the aerial while rescue operation is in progress.

Solid stream or straight stream master streams

wide-angle fog stream

20

RESCUE
Placement of an apparatus equipped with an elevating platform device will depend on how the driver/operator plans to get the victim into the platform.

If the victim is to be lifted over the top rail, the driver/operator should position the apparatus so that the turntable is __________________.


This placement allows the front of the platform to be positioned squarely in front of the target.

If the victim enters the platform through the hinged gate, the turntable must be positioned ______________ because the platform gates are typically on the side of ______________.

Therefore, the device must be raised at an angle to the target to provide safe access to the gates.

directly in line with the target

a little forward or behind the target ; the platform

21

ACCESS TO UPPER LEVELS
Several operations require the use of aerial devices to give firefighters access to upper levels.

Among them are performing interior work with ____________________.

This type of work can be performed with most aerial devices in use today.

Aerial devices are used as ____________ in the event unsafe conditions occur.

The devices are also used as a method by which ____________ can be deployed to upper levels.

handlines off the aerial device

a means of escape

portable equipment

22

ACCESS TO UPPER LEVELS
Apparatus position should provide the ___________to the firefighters using the aerial device.

Positioning the apparatus on the side of the building ______ often provides a safe position.

In addition, this position allows interior attack crews to advance hoselines toward the fire area from the unburned side, which is a standard fire fighting tactic used to avoid pushing the fire into the unburned portions of the building.

maximum degree of safety

opposite the fire


23

VENTILATION
If the aerial device is being used to provide access for ventilating a pitched roof, it may be possible to position the apparatus so that the firefighters may ___________.

This is beneficial especially in a fully involved building where the roof may potentially collapse.

In order to reduce the risk of personnel injury, whenever possible, ____________ to the aerial device with rescue quality rope.

operate directly from the device

tether firefighters

24

VENTILATION
When providing access for ventilating a flat roof, the driver/operator should position the aerial apparatus on the unburned side of the structure _______________________.

This position minimizes the travel distance between the work area and the aerial and could be important in the event of roof failure.

The aerial should be placed so that the vent holes _________________________.

Aerial ladders should be extended at least ___ feet above the roof level.

When operating with an aerial platform, the driver/operator should extend the platform so that _______________________.

as close a as possible to the area being ventilated

will not be cut in the travel path back to the device

6

the floor of the platform is at roof level


25

VENTILATION
Positioning the aerial device as close to the area being ventilated _____________ in the event a hasty retreat is required.

If the aerial device is being used to assist with horizontal ventilation, such as breaking or removing windows, the turntable should be positioned so that the entire aerial device will be _____________ of the ventilation point(s) and will have access to as many windows as possible

Ultimately, the goal is to place the tip of the aerial device upwind of the window being opened and ___________________.

If the aerial device is being used to assist horizontal ventilation efforts, the tip of the device should be placed in the __________ of the window on the upwind side

reduces the time and distance to the device

Upwind

slightly higher than the opening

upper corner

26

ELEV. MASTER STREAMS
It is common to use an aerial device for elevated master streams, which can be used in _________, _________, and __________.

When used in a blitz attack, the driver/operator should position the apparatus to _____________________.

The ultimate goal will be to place the nozzle in the ______________ so that the fire stream may be directed upward toward the ceiling.

blitz attacks, defensive attacks, and exposure protection

give the fire stream as much reach into the fire area as possible

lower portion of the window opening

27

ELEV. MASTER STREAMS
________-Aggressive attack upon a fire from the exterior with a large diameter fire stream.

_________- Exterior fire attack with emphasis on exposure protection .

_________– Covering any object in the immediate vicinity of the fire with water or foam.

Blitz Attack

Defensive Attack

Exposure Protection

28

ELEV. MASTER STREAMS
When crews are working inside the building, never perform external fire attacks using master streams, including from the aerial device.

External master stream attacks pose a serious safety threat to interior fire fighting crews by the disturbance of the_________, the large volume of ______ created, the possibility of being _________, and the additional _______ imposed on the building.

Be aware of collapse if water is not draining from the building at the approximate rate of input.

interior balance

Steam

struck by the stream

weight

29

ELEV. MASTER STREAMS
In some cases, the aerial device may be used as a master stream closer to
ground level, especially if the apparatus is equipped with water towers and
telescoping aerial platforms

If the aerial device is used in this manner, the driver/operator should position the apparatus so that _______________________________ ( usually a window, door, or opening of some type).

This position allows the fire stream to penetrate as far into the fire area as possible.

the turntable is directly in line with the intended target

30

ELEV. MASTER STREAMS
A recommended tactic is to direct the master stream at the _____ of the target fire area.

This type of attack will penetrate the area without disturbing the thermal balance and break the stream into finer water particles upon contact with the ceiling, creating a near perfect atmosphere for steam conversion.

Ceiling


31

ELEV. MASTER STREAMS
Elevated streams are most commonly used in _________ operations.

In this type of operation, the elevated stream may be used to directly attack the fire, cool brands and gases within the thermal column, and protect exposures.

When a defensive attack is employed, the chance for _________ must be considered.

Positioning the apparatus at ______________ or at an otherwise safe distance from the building decreases the chance of damage to the truck and injury to the firefighters in the event of a building collapse.

It also decreases the chances of damage from radiant heat from the fire.

The aerial device should not be supported on the structure during these operations.

Nozzle reaction and shutting down water streams can cause the device to “batter” the building and perhaps trigger a collapse.

Defensive

building collapse

the corners of the building


32

SPOTTING THE APP.
Spotting refers to positioning the apparatus in a location that _____________ for operating on the fireground.

Often, this location is the final operating position for the aerial apparatus at the scene.

The driver/operator must consider the following factors when determining this final operating position of the aerial apparatus:

• ______ conditions

• _________ and ________ conditions

• Electrical hazards and ground or ______________

• ________ and _________ of aerial device operation

• __________ conditions

provides the utmost efficiency

Surface

Weather and wind

overhead obstructions

Angle and location

Fire building

33

SURFACE CONDITIONS
Only as a last alternative should apparatus be parked on ____________.

If working on soft surfaces, operators must be aware of and watch for ________.

The stabilizer pads supplied with the apparatus are to be used __________________.

However, placement on soft surfaces may require additional cribbing or support materials may need to be placed under the stabilizer pads to further distribute the weight of the apparatus.

Thin-skinned paved surfaces, which are especially common in_______ , may be as problematic as soft soil.

Most parking lots are not constructed with the same strength techniques and materials as public roadways.

soft surfaces

settling

whenever the stabilizers are deployed.

parking lots

34

SURFACE CONDITIONS
Driver/operators must also be alert for areas that may contain ____________.

Vaults beneath the ground may he created by underground parking structures, utility chases, drainage culverts, basements that extend under sidewalks, or underground transportation systems.

__________ are a good indicator of underground voids.

These surfaces are unstable for the support of aerial apparatus.

When soft or otherwise unstable surfaces are present or even suspected, the driver/operator should avoid the area if at all possible.

vaulted surfaces

Manhole covers

35

____________ - Device that transfers the center of gravity of an apparatus and prevents it from tipping as the aerial device, hydraulic lifting boom, gin pole, or A-frame is extended away from the centerline of the chassis.

____________– Unattached flat, metal plate that is larger in area than the stabilizer foot. The stabilizer pad is placed on the ground beneath the intended resting point of the stabilizer foot to provide better ____________.

Vaulted Surfaces – Vaults beneath the ground may be created by underground parking structures, utility chases, drainage culverts, basements that extend under sidewalks, or underground transportation systems.

Stabilizer

Stabilizer Pad ; weight distribution

36

COLD WEATHER
The most common spotting consideration that faces driver/operators in cold weather conditions is_____________________________________.

When possible, the driver/operator should avoid parking the apparatus and deploying the aerial device on snowy or icy surfaces.

In some cases, after the stabilizers have been lowered onto an icy or snow-packed surface, the ice/snow may melt or break away leaving the stabilizer off the ground.

This will require______________ to ensure solid contact with the ground.

the presence of ice or snow on the parking surface

the stabilizer to be lowered further

37

COLD WEATHER
Icing of ladders, booms, and platforms requires additional caution during operation due to ____________.

The amount of weight added to the aerial device by firefighters and equipment must be decreased when icing conditions are present

If the aerial device is going to be used for elevated master stream operations, avoid parking-it so that the stream will be operated _________________.

This minimizes overspray reaching the device.

If the aerial device does not (typo?) receive a buildup of ice, a procedure called __________ may be necessary.

Ice shrugging involves ______________ the aerial device to remove accumulated ice.

The ice shrugging maneuver may not be effective for large accumulations of ice and in these instances, application of de-icing fluid may be necessary.

the weight of the ice

against the wind

ice shrugging

slowly extending and retracting

38

HOT WEATHER
The primary spotting consideration associated with hot weather is that extreme heat may tend to __________________________.

For example, an asphalt parking lot that may provide a marginal level of support during moderate temperatures may become soft during periods of extreme heat

weaken marginal or otherwise firm paved surfaces

39

WINDY
Moderate to high winds impose a __________ on the aerial device and may reduce the overall stability.

Overall stability may be reduced by the force of the wind blowing against the device and forcing movement for which it was not designed.

The movement by the wind also magnifies the other loads placed on the device by personnel and equipment.

When it is necessary to operate during high wind conditions, the driver/operator should spot the apparatus in a manner that requires the aerial device to be raised _________________.

It is also helpful to position the apparatus so that the aerial device may be used over the_____ or ______ of the apparatus, preferably ___________ to the wind.

dynamic load

to the minimum extension needed

front or rear ; parallel

40

ELEC/GROUND/OVERHEAD HAZ.

Aerial driver/operators must continually be aware of ___________________.

The goal is to maintain a distance of at least ____ feet between the aerial device and overhead electric lines.

Articulating boom operators have two areas of the apparatus to monitor:________ and _______ , particularly in the area of the ______ or ________.

Personnel on the apparatus are generally considered to be susceptible to electric shocks regardless of whether or not they are in contact with the ground.

If it becomes necessary to exit an apparatus that is in contact with electric lines, ______________ to reduce the risk of electrocution.

When positioning aerial apparatus, the driver/operator should avoid trees and overhangs, parked vehicles, trash containers, and similar obstructions, which may affect the operation of the stabilizers and/or aerial device.

overhead power lines

10

the platform and the boom ; boom joint or hinge

jump clear of the energized apparatus

41

ANGLE/LOCATION
In many cases, principles of spotting the aerial apparatus are linked with ___________.

Stability of aerial apparatus can be improved by operating the aerial device in line with the___________________

In other words, the aerial apparatus is most stable when the aerial device is operated ________________.

Increasing the angle of the aerial device away from the longitudinal axis of the truck decreases the _____________________.

An angle ________________ is the least stable position.


stabilizing the apparatus

longitudinal axis (apparatus body)

directly over the front or rear of the vehicle

amount of load that can be carried safely

perpendicular to the apparatus

42

ANGLE/LOCATION
By positioning the truck body in a line with the_________________, the stability of the apparatus can be increased.

For example, if the driver/operator has the entire parking lot to use, he should _____________ rather than park parallel to the objective.

For rear-mounted aerial devices, __________ is the preferred method, as this maximizes the reach of the aerial device.

Nosing in the apparatus would shorten the possible reach by a distance equal to the length of the apparatus.

The opposite would be true of midship-mounted devices.

expected position of aerial use

nose or back the aerial apparatus into position

backing in the apparatus


43

JACKKNIFING
Tillered aerial apparatus may be positioned to increase stability by ______________.

Jackknifing involves turning the tractor at an angle from the trailer.

Greatest stability occurs when this angle is approximately ____________ from inline and the aerial device is __________ from this angle.

Good stability occurs at angles up to ___ degrees.

Beyond ___ degrees, stability decreases rapidly.

Modern tillered apparatus may have stabilizer systems that allow them to be adequately stabilized without jackknifing.

However, even those apparatus become more stable when the apparatus is jackknifed.

jackknifing the apparatus

60 degrees ; extended away

90

90


44

STRESS IN AERIAL DEVICES
Stress in aerial devices is increased when the ladder rungs are operated non-parallel to the ground or when the apparatus is parked on an incline and the aerial device must operate off ______________.

These positions and others like them create a _________ on the ladder or boom and the turntable.

When an apparatus must operate off an incline, the driver/operator can reduce these stresses by spotting the turntable _________ from the point of operation.



the side of the apparatus

torsion or twisting action

downhill

45

STRESS IN AERIAL DEVICES
When approaching from the uphill side, pull the apparatus past the building, and operate the aerial device from the _______ of the truck.

When approaching from the downhill side, apparatus should be stopped short of the building, and the aerial should be operated __________

Ideally, the truck should be operated in the _______ position with the aerial device directly inline to reduce the stress.

In some cases, it is possible to level the truck somewhat by using the stabilizers to raise on side of the truck more than the other.

Generally, this is only possible on grades that are perpendicular to the long centerline of the apparatus.

For the most part, it can only be done with __________ that are designed to be lifted completely off the ground.

Rear

over the cab.

Uphill

single-chassis vehicles

46

CHOOSING A SUPPORTED POSITION
Another spotting consideration is whether the aerial device is designed to be operated in either an unsupported (cantilever) or a supported (resting on a wall) position.

If the manufacturer recommends that its device be operated in a supported position, the ______ or ________must be reduced for low angles of operation during unsupported operations.

The maximum loading for any unsupported aerial device occurs when operated at angles between ____ and ____ from horizontal.

The amount of extension affects aerial device stress.

As extension increases, _________ must decrease.

Aerials operating at a __________ and at a __________ are at their weakest operational position.

Spotting the apparatus us as close to the intended target as safely as possible helps to avoid operating at low angles with long extension.

Most modem aerial devices are designed to be operated in the __________ position.

load or the amount of extension

70° and 80°

aerial loading

low angle of elevation; long extension

unsupported

47

FIRE BUILDING CONDITIONS
The condition of the fire building, as well as other building-related concerns, must be considered when positioning the apparatus.

Buildings that have been subjected to extensive fire damage or buildings in poor condition before the fire incident may be subject to ____________.

For this reason, park apparatus far enough away so that they will not be in the collapse zone should a collapse occur.

The collapse zone should be at least ___________________________.

Therefore, the driver/operator should consider the possibility of exposure when spotting the apparatus.

In many cases the aerial apparatus is the __________ exposure on the fireground

sudden collapse

equal to one and one-halftimes the height of the building

most expensive

48

The presence of reinforcement stars are an indication that this building ___________.

was unstable before it caught fire

49

INDICATORS OF UNSTABLE BLDG
Good and thorough ___________ is instrumental in identifying all buildings of safety risk in any given response district.

The presence of exterior ornamental stars or large bolts and washers at various intervals on the outside masonry indicates that _____________________________.

If the fire building is known to be unstable and in poor repair, the aerial device should not be used in a ______________

preincident planning

reinforcement ties are in place to hold together otherwise unstable walls

supported position

50

FIRE INTENSITY
The intensity of the fire may also dictate the placement of the apparatus.

Large hot fires indicate that placement of the apparatus must be further away from the fire building, especially if the building has been noted to be a safety risk.

Consideration must also be given to the fire's _____________.

If the fire has the potential to grow or spread to exposures, the apparatus must be placed so that it is _____________________.

If the apparatus is to be positioned in a dead-end access, _______________________.

potential growth

not trapped by the advancing fire

back the apparatus into position if possible

51

FALLING DEBRIS
Another consideration for spotting apparatus is the debris that can fall from upper levels of the fire building, which is of particular concern at _______________.

In these situations, the apparatus should be spotted away from the area in which debris may fall.

All personnel should be directed away from the hazardous fall zone.

high-rise fire incidents


52

STAGING
Often, apparatus placement at the scene of a fire or medical incident is limited by _____________________________.

A later arriving aerial apparatus may be blocked from a better position by an earlier arriving engine or rescue vehicle.

______________ facilitates the orderly positioning of apparatus and allows the Incident Commander to fully utilize the potential of each unit and crew.

________ is applied to the initial response for a fire or medical incident involving more than one company.

Level II staging is used in greater alarm situations when requesting additional alarms or by a dispatcher when a large initial response is indicated.

the order in which responding apparatus arrive

An apparatus staging procedure

Level I staging

53

LEVEL 1 STAGING
Level I staging is used on every emergency response when ____________________.

The first-due engine company, truck company, rescue or squad company, and command officer proceed directly to the scene.

Later arriving units park or stage at least _________ before reaching the scene in their direction of travel or otherwise according to department SOPs

Engine or quint companies in departments that typically perform straight or forward hose lays should stage near ________________________.

Staged apparatus should not allow their paths to become blocked.

two companies performing similar functions are dispatched

one block

hydrants or other sources of water

54

LEVEL 2 STAGING
Level II staging is used when numerous emergency vehicles will be responding
to an incident.

Incidents that ________ or that result in __________ require Level II staging.

A parking lot or open field can serve as a staging area.

Generally, the company officer of the first-arriving company at the staging area becomes the ______________.

On large-scale incidents, a chief officer may be assigned to the staging function.

The Staging Area Manager should communicate available resources and resource needs to the _________________-.

require mutual aid ; multiple alarms

Staging Area Manager

Operations Section Chief

55

LEVEL 2 STAGING
The staging area should be a secure area that is free from nonemergency traffic.

The apparatus belonging to the Staging Area Manager should park ___________ and should _________________.

All subsequent apparatus arriving at the staging area should shut down their engines and turn off their emergency lights when they park.

The ___________ apparatus should be the only one in the staging area with its warning lights flashing.

near the entrance to the staging area; leave on its emergency lights

staging officer's

56

APPROACH/POSITION ON HIGHWAY
The driver/operator should use prudence when responding to an incident on a highway or turnpike.

A fire apparatus usually travels ______ than the normal flow of traffic, and the use of warning lights and sirens may create less desirable traffic conditions than if responding without warning devices

During nighttime incidents, use _________ warning lights at the scene to prevent blinding other drivers or distracting them, possibly leading to another incident.

Once on the scene, place headlights on the _______ setting, without flashing.

Slower

a minimum number of

low –beam

57

APPROACH/POSITION ON HIGHWAY
NFPA _____ contains material specific to the correct lighting configurations for fire apparatus.

It divides an apparatus into ____ zones in which emergency lights may be used, based on whether the apparatus wants the right of way or wants to block the right of way.

1901

four

58

APPROACH/POSITION ON HIGHWAY
The following steps should be used a highway incidents to ensure firefighter safety:

Close at least _____ next to the incident lane.

Position fire apparatus at an angle to act as a _____ between the flow of traffic and the firefighters working on the incident.

Turn the front wheels ___________ working highway incidents so that the apparatus will not be driven into them if struck from behind.

Consider parking additional apparatus ____ to ____ -feet behind the shielding apparatus to act as an additional barrier between firefighters and the flow of traffic.

one lane

Shield

away from the firefighters

150 to 200

59

APPROACH/POSITION ON HIGHWAY
If the aerial device is going to be deployed on the highway, the driver /operator
must keep the following safety considerations in mind:

• Traffic moving by the area may ___________ that affect the stability of the apparatus, especially on elevated roadways.

• The driver/operator should frequently ___________ to ensure that they are in solid contact with the stabilizer pads and the ground.

• The driver/operator should use caution when maneuvering the aerial device to make sure that it is not placed in a position where it may be struck by another apparatus or passing traffic. This is of particular concern when operating __________ that have the boom and knuckle behind the platform.

cause vibrations

check the stabilizers

articulating apparatus

60

APPROACH/POSITION NEAR HAZMAT
The following are a few general considerations for which the driver/operators should be prepared when responding to a potential hazardous materials emergency:

• Always stop _________ of the incident scene until the nature of the hazard is understood.

• Do not park over___________ or _________. Flammable materials flowing
into the underground system could ignite and explode.

• Obtain information on the wind speed and direction while en route to the scene.

• Park and approach the incident from the upwind and uphill side if at all possible.

The driver/operator must be aware of the dangers of being exposed to high
levels ofradiant heat. Therefore, the driver/operator must position the apparatus
accordingly if the hazardous materials incident involves ignited flammable or combustible liquids.

well short

manholes or storm drains


61

APPROACH/POSITION NEAR HAZMAT
The driver/operator should avoid staging all apparatus in the same location when responding to bomb threats and other potential terrorist incidents.

It is possible that an explosive device could be placed in the staging location with the intent of harming emergency personnel.

Most fire agencies use a series of control zones to organize the emergency scene.

The zones prevent sightseers and other unauthorized persons from interfering with first responders, help regulate movement"' of first responders within the zones, and minimize contamination.

Control zones are not necessarily static and can be adjusted as the incident changes.

Zones divide the levels of hazard of an incident, and the name of a zone is based on its level of _________.

danger

62

APPROACH/OPS NEAR RAILROAD
When possible, the driver/operator should park the apparatus on the same side of the tracks as ___________.

This negates the need to raise the aerial device across the tracks or for personnel to traverse back and forth between each side.

Most railroad companies advise that vehicles be kept at least ____ feet from the tracks when possible.


the incident

25


63

APPROACH/OPS NEAR RAILROAD
If it becomes absolutely necessary to raise an aerial device across a railroad track, confirm with the railroad company that train traffic has been halted on that set of tracks.

Even when a halt confirmation has been received, keep the aerial device at least _______ feet above the level of the rails as an added safety precaution.

25 feet (8 m)

64

APPROACH/POSITION AT EMS
The driver/operator should allow the ambulance the best position for ____________.

If possible, the apparatus should be parked off the street, although this may be difficult with a large aerial apparatus.

Residential driveways and yards are not recommended as stable surfaces for fire apparatus.

Many fire apparatus have become stuck on private property or damaged private property by cracking concrete driveways and sidewalks.

An aerial apparatus should be parked between smaller apparatus, such as an ambulance, and the oncoming flow of traffic.

In particular, the driver/operator should guard the ____________ of the ambulance by shielding it with another vehicle.

patient loading

patient loading area

65

APPROACH/POSITION WITH AIRCRAFT
The following are three basic types of aircraft incidents to which aerial apparatus may respond:

Aircraft incidents involving __________

Aircraft incidents involving extrication __________

___________ aircraft fires

Extrication

complicated by fire

Non-incident-related

66

APPROACH/POSITION WITH AIRCRAFT
In reality, there are ________ for aerial devices at the scene of aircraft incidents.

The apparatus will be primarily used to __________________________.

Many collisions occur away from runways, taxiways, and other paved surfaces.

Aerial apparatus are typically not well suited for ____________.

Therefore, it may not be possible to get the apparatus very close to the actual scene or work area.

few tactical uses

transport firefighters and portable equipment as needed to upper levels

off-road operations

67

APPROACH/POSITION WITH AIRCRAFT
Aerial apparatus are more likely to be useful at ______________ involving large-frame aircraft previously mentioned.

These incidents almost always occur on paved surfaces that allow the aerial apparatus a direct access to the aircraft.

The aerial device may be used to provide access for ventilation, to rescue passengers, to deploy handlines to the interior of the aircraft, or master stream applications.

If the tip of the device is to be placed in an aircraft doorway, the apparatus should be positioned for __________________.

If the objective is to provide access over a wing or remove victims from a wing, the positioning principles are basically the same as for __________________

non-accident-related fires

accessing the window of a building

providing access to the roof of a building

68

APPROACH/POSITION WITH AIRCRAFT
The driver/operator should avoid spotting the apparatus in a position that hinders the deployment of ______________.

These slides inflate and drop from the ___________ of the aircraft.

On larger aircraft, they inflate and drop from the ___________ near the emergency window exits.

the aircraft emergency slides

door openings

rear of the wings

69

APPROACH/POSITION WITH AIRCRAFT
When responding to any type of aircraft incident and positioning on the scene, the driver/operator should keep in mind the following safety requirements:

• Watch for pools of jet fuel - do not drive through them or close enough to present an ignition source.

• Position ______ of any fire conditions or vapors from unignited pools of fuel.

• Watch for wreckage or other debris (obscured by smoke or darkness) that may flatten tires.

• Stage the apparatus ________ when dispatched to an aircraft emergency landing. Complete the response only after the aircraft has touched down. If you position where the aircraft is expected to stop, the apparatus and crew could become part of an airplane crash in the event the airplane goes out of control (especially belly landings or jammed landing gear incidents).

Upwind

near the expected touchdown area

70

APPROACH/OPS ON BRIDGES
The following guidelines should be used in these situations:

• Be sure that the bridge has a _______ that is safe for the apparatus to drive on and operate from.

• Use caution when raising the aerial device if the bridge has a superstructure above the road surface. If electric lines are present, follow the standard ___ foot safety distance from the lines.

• Be sure the road surface upon which the apparatus is parked is in good repair. Avoid weak spots that might allow a stabilizer to punch through the bridge decking.

• Follow the principles discussed earlier in this chapter for setting up the aerial apparatus on an incline if the bridge has a significantly sloped road surface.

• Be alert for _________ on top of a large bridge. It may be necessary to use high-wind operating principles for the aerial device. Wind conditions may be more severe here than on either side of the access to the bridge.

load capacity

10

wind conditions

71

APPROACH/OPS ON BRIDGES
• Recognize that most large bridges are designed to move somewhat in response to forces placed upon them by wind, traffic, and water movement below. This movement will be somewhat amplified at the top of a raised aerial device, depending on the type and intensity of the force. High winds will further affect the movement of the aerial device. When this movement becomes uncomfortable for firefighters or begins to place excessive lateral stress on the aerial device, _____________ as much as possible.

• Remember that bridges and elevated sections of roads will be the first road surfaces ______ during cold weather. This can pose serious travel and positioning hazards later in the incident.

minimize the extension of the device

to freeze

72

APPROACH/OPS AT PETROLEUM STORAGE/PROCESSING
Aerial apparatus are frequently used to ________________ at fires involving large storage tanks or fuel/chemical processing facilities.

________ and ________ between the industrial and municipal firefighters protecting a facility are crucial to the success of industrial emergency incidents.

When operating at storage tank fires, the apparatus should never be spotted __________ that surrounds the affected tank(s).

The driver/operator should always position the apparatus outside the dike's walls, unless the roadway is built on top of the dike.

In that case, the apparatus may actually be set up__________, although a constant monitoring of the conditions of the dike must be maintained.

______location is most desirable if the aerial device is being used for direct fire attack.

It is more efficient to discharge foam streams __________.

provide elevated master streams

Preincident planning and training sessions

inside the dike

on the dike itself

An upwind

downwind

73

PETROLEUM STORAGE/PROCESSING
Some of the challenges include the following:

• ___________- It may be extremely difficult and time consuming to maneuver the apparatus into the most desirable position.

• ___________- Because incidents of this nature have the potential to quickly become more severe, never place the apparatus in a position where a difficult reverse retreat would be required. Take the time to back the apparatus into position if this is the case.

• ___________- Refineries and chemical processing facilities are typically a maze of _____________. Be certain that the final spot chosen for the aerial apparatus is one that will allow the aerial device to be deployed effectively without coming into contact with any overhead obstructions.

Narrow driveways

Dead -end accesses

Overhead obstructions ; overhead piping and conduits

74

APPROACH/OPS FOR TRT
The proper positioning of aerial apparatus at the scene of a technical rescue operation will depend on whether the aerial device is being used to ______ in the mitigation of the incident or the apparatus is simply serving in a ________ on the scene.

The following general principles may be used for technical rescue incidents:

• Place the apparatus in a position that ___________ to which the aerial device will be raised.

• Avoid spotting the apparatus in a location that will require the apparatus to be stabilized on top of debris or otherwise unstable surfaces.

• Be aware of dangling debris and unstable structures that could drop or collapse onto the apparatus and the firefighters working around it

directly aid ; support role

minimizes the angle and extension

75

APPROACH/OPS TRT
• Do not stress the aerial with _______ or _______ if the apparatus is being used for an overwater rescue or other low-level service.

• Park the apparatus in a manner that does not block other apparatus that need to be closer to the work area (if the aerial apparatus is going to be used in a support role). However, do not park it so far away that it is difficult to carry ground ladders and other portable equipment to the rescue scene if needed.

• Avoid parking in a position where apparatus exhaust fumes, noise, or vibrations will affect victims and rescuers.

• Maintain adequate distance from trench walls and other unstable terrain.

• Do not block scene access to later arriving fire vehicles.

• Shut down the engine if the apparatus is used solely for person-power.

"shock load" or overloading