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ATPL Systems and Aerodynamics > Aerodynamics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aerodynamics Deck (111):
1

What happens to supersonic airflow when passing through convergent and divergent ducts?

The opposite to sonic flow (convergent: velocity decreases, pressure increases, divergent is opposite)

2

Sonic flow refers to

Speed AT the speed of sound

3

Supersonic flow refers to

Speed ABOVE the speed of sound

4

What effect will an increase in temperature have on the speed of sound

Speed of sound will increase

5

What is Mcrit?

Critical mach number: The speed where the first evidence of local sonic flow.

6

When do shockwaves start forming on the wing?

ABOVE Mcrit

7

What is Mcdr?

Mach critical drag rise number: Drag rises significantly as speeds just above Mcrit

8

What is the force divergence mach number?

The speed above Mcrit which causes significant changes to the Centre of Pressure.

9

What is Mdet?

The Mach detachment number. The speed AT which the bow wave attaches to the leading edge (all local flow is supersonic).

10

What are the mach speeds for the start and end of the transonic speed range?

Mcrit is the start, Mdet is the end.

11

What is Mmo

Maximum operating mach number, pretty much Vne.

12

Describe the characteristics of a normal shockwave

sometimes called a vertical shockwave, airflow through the shockwave reduces in velocity to subsonic flow, causing pressure and density to increase. Total pressure after the shockwave reduces.

13

Describe the characteristics of oblique shockwaves.

Form around compressive corners. Airflow velocity is reduced however REMAINS supersonic, and also experiences a change in velocity and. There is a rise in static pressure and density, and total pressure reduces.

14

Describe the characteristics of an expansion wave

Forms around expansive corners. Flow direction changes, velocity increases, and static pressure and temperature decrease. Airflow remains supersonic.

15

What mach speeds are usually considered subsonic?

0-0.75

16

What mach speeds are usually considered transonic

0.75-1.2

17

Describe the bow wave during transonic speeds

Forms ahead of the aircraft but is not yet attached to the leading edge

18

What mach speeds are usually considered supersonic?

1.2-5 (above 5 is hypersonic)

19

What is Mach tuck?

A tendency for a nose pitch down due to the CP moving rearwards at supersonic speeds.

20

The main advantages of sweepback are

delayed compressibility effects, increased Mcrit and Mcdr, increased force divergence mach number, Improved lateral stability and directional stability.

21

The disadvantages of sweepback are

Tendency to stall tip first (strong spanwise flow), reduced Cl max, reduced trailing edge device effectiveness, excessive lateral stability which may lead to dutch roll, high induced drag at high angles of attach, structural complexity.

22

What is dutch roll?

Spiral stability: result of lateral stability overpowering directional stability. Effect is worsened with altitude, where directional stability reduces, but lateral stability remains the same (no idea why..)

23

What are the two types of yaw dampers?

Parallel, which move the pilots rudders and therefore must be switched off for takeoff and landing, and series, which is independent and can therefore operate continiously.

24

What effect does a sweepback wing have on stalling angle of attack?

Increases

25

to delay seperation, would you prefer laminar or turbulent flow?

Turbulent (no not a typo), because it has higher velocities. This is why vortex generators are effective.

26

At what speed does a stick shaker usually engage?

1.05 Vs

27

Following an engine failure in a MEA, you use rudder to counteract the yaw, you expect the balance ball to be

centred

28

Following an engine failure in a MEA, you use aileron to counteract the yaw, you expect the balance ball to be

fully deflected towards to live engine

29

Following an engine failure in a MEA, you use rudder and aileron (5° AoB) to counteract the yaw, you expect the balance ball to be

half a ball out

30

What determines the critical engine?

The engine that results in the most yaw following an engine failure.

31

For the critical engine, would the down-going propeller be on the inboard or outboard section

inboard

32

Does a forward CG decrease or increase VMC

decreases (more authority at lower speeds)

33

What is the effect of gear down on VMC speed?

Increases (due to more drag)

34

What is the effect of bank angle on VMC?

A small amount of bank (10°) wull reduce VMC when compared to wings level. Due to less rudder needed due to help from ailerons

35

What is the effect of a windmilling propeller compared to a feathered propeller on VMC speed?

Significantly increase VMC. Really the worst case scenario.

36

What is the effect of ground effect on VMC?

Reduces VMC speed due to less drag

37

What is the effect of a change in weight with VMC?

Speed remains the same (approximately)

38

Vr must not be less than

V1, and 1.05Vmca

39

V2 must not be less than

1.1Vmca, and 1.2Vs

40

What will the effect of rotating 5kts early (1 inop) or 10kts early have on TODR?

Not alter TODR

41

V2 is the

Takeoff Safety Speed

42

Usual causes of tailstrike are the result of

Early rotation or rapid rotation (more than 3°/sec).

43

When climbing at a constant mach number, the Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) will

Decrease

44

When climbing at a constant mach number, the TAS will

decrease if the temperature decreases

45

The difference between leading edge slats and leading edge flaps is that

slats re-energise the boundary layer and flaps after the effective camber of the leading edge

46

As an aicraft climbs above FL300, the IAS and EAS stall speeds will

both increase (though IAS more than EAS)

47

An aircraft accelerates from subsonic speeds to mach 1.0 to supersonic speeds, the coefficient of drag will

increase then decrease

48

In a constant mach number climb in the isothermal layer above the tropopause, the TAS will

remain constant due to the constant temperature

49

In a constant mach number climb in the isothermal layer above the tropopause, the IAS will

decrease due to decreasing pressure

50

Mcrit is

The speed at which sonic flow occurs, and therefore the speed above which supersonic flow occurs.

51

If the aircraft exceeds Mcrit and no mach trimmer is fitted, the aircraft will

pitch down

52

For high subsonic cruise speeds, the reason it is is best to delay the formation of shockwaves is

to keep the drag penalty to a minimum

53

Fast transport category aircraft may have a supercritical (flat) wing section, this is to

reduce the top wing surface acceleration.

54

Aileron control reversal can be caused by

the wing twisting about its lateral axis due to high aerodynamic loads at high speed

55

Exceeding Mcrit results in a nose down pitch, this is because

the CP moves rearward

56

An aircraft is slowly accelerating through its Mcrit to transonic cruise, the coefficient of lift

will increase and then decrease

57

A mach trimmer is designed to

ensure that with an increasing speed, the aircraft will tend to pitch up

58

At transonic flow, the reason that some aircraft use spoilers for roll control even though they have ailerons fitted is

to overcome the loss of aileron effectiveness due to flow separation ahead of the aileron

59

Wing sweep results in an increase in the stalling angle of attack, this is because

swept wing Cl is less than straight wing Cl for any given body angle

60

Wing sweep is an important feature for high speed flight because

it delays the drag effects of shockwaves

61

On swept wing aircraft, nose pitch up at the stall is caused by

wing tip stall and the effective CP moving forwards

62

Jet aircraft ahieve maximum RoC at

maximum total POWER over WEIGHT

63

You want your jet aircraft to stay airborne as long as possible, you would achieve this by flying at an altitude where

engine design RPM would coincide with Vimd

64

To achieve maximum angle of climb, you would climb at

maximum thrust over drag (Vimd)

65

The Centre of pressure should ideally have minimal movement with variations in speed because

large trim changes would be needed otherwise

66

When does the stick pusher activate

After the stall

67

Jet overspeed warnings occur

slightly ABOVE Mmo and Vmo

68

Mfs (free stream) is

The actual mach number of air passing the aircraft

69

Airflow through a shockwave will experience

An increase in temperature, density, and pressure, but a decrease in velocity.

70

A typical Jet SAR figure is expressed as

100anm/1000kg

71

To achieve maximum range at any given flight level, you would fly at

1.32 Vimd

72

Optimum range is achieved by flying at

a cruise climb, 1.32Vimd, and design RPM

73

Climb IAS decreases with increased altitude because

Maximum excess power occurs at a lower IAS at high altitude (the graph moves up and to the left)

74

A jet climbs at a constant mach number after a certain altitude is reached because

this equates with the required reducing IASand to prevent mach overspeed

75

If required to cruise at a level with a significant headwind when maximum range is required, would you fly faster or slower than 1.32 Vimd?

Faster, as you need to achieve the best GS/drag ratio

76

As airflow passes through a normal (vertical) shockwave, what happens to velocity and direction?

Velocity changes from supersonic to subsonic, with no change in direction

77

What is the purpose of slotted flaps?

Increase the camber of the wing and preserve energy in the boundary layer

78

What is the purpose of fowler flaps?

Increase the camber and chord of the wing

79

Flap extension at high altitude is not permitted on most aircraft because

flap extension speed may be below the stalling speed at high altitude

80

Are trailing edge devices more effective on swept back wing or a straight wing?

straight wing.

81

An internal flexible seal attached to the leading edge of a control surface is designed to...

assist control load balancing

82

The Vmcg speed is lower than the Vmca speed because...

The wheels are on the ground and provide more control

83

When flying at a very high altitude in a swept wing jet transport category aircraft, vibration felt through the airframe during manouvres may be caused by

either high or low speed buffets

84

True or false, cruising at a higher FL will always increase SAR?

False

85

True or false, Maximum endurance is achieved at the best lift/drag ratio

True

86

True or false, At all altitudes, mach number is the ratio of TAS to the local speed of sound AT MSL

false (would be true if not for MSL)

87

True or false, any head or tailwind component will reduce the distance to a PNR?

True

88

True or false, the mach number required for maximum range cruise is independent of hw or tw

false

89

True or false, low SFC is best achieved at low altitude and low engine RPM?

Flase

90

True or false, the angle of attack required for maximum range cruise does not vary with aircraft gross weight

true

91

True or false, maximum static thrust increases with increasing ambient temperature

false

92

True or false, during constant altitude cruise, a reduction in aircraft GW will require a reduction in wing angle of attack to maintain the optimum lift coefficient for subsonic cruise?

false. speed will change, AoA remains the same.

93

True or false, Mcrit is that free stream mach number below which all local airflow is subsonic

True

94

True or false, high propulsive efficiency is typified by low mass flow and maximum possible velocity change?

False

95

True or false, engine SFC is directly proportional to thrust

False

96

True or false, for cruise at a constant mach number and constant altitude, buffet boundary margins increase with increasing gross weight

False

97

True or false, wing sweep back increases Mcrit

True

98

True or false, at a constant cruise level, the long range cruise mach number decreases with decreasing gross weight

true

99

True or false, the angle of attack for best endurance at a constant altitude decreases with a decreasing gross weight

false (LRC aim is to fly at constant angle of attack)

100

True or false, the minimum thrust and minimum angle of descent is obtained at L/D max.

True

101

True or false, at a constant IAS and FL, mach number is not affected by changes in air temperature

True

102

True or false, the long range cruise mach number increases with a decreasing gross weight

false

103

True or false, below the tropopause, a constant mach number cruise climb would produce a constant IAS

False

104

True or false, both maximum endurance and maximum climb angle performance occur at L/D max.

True (Vimd)

105

To calculate Vmca speeds in the AFM, is a rearward or forward CoG assumed?

Rearward

106

The critical engine is that engine with...

the down-going blade closest to the fuselage

107

In relation to TAT, OAT is always

less than or equal to TAT

108

Climbing at IAS just below Vmo will see Mmo....

eventually exceeded

109

In relation to CAS, EAS is always

less than or equal to

110

ICE-T, Its a pretty cool drink

IAS, CAS, EAS, TAS, Instrument and Position error for IAS to CAS, Compressibility for CAS to EAS, and Density error for EAS to TAS.

111

What happens to TAS when climbing at a fixed mach number?

TAS reduced (speed of sound reduces as temp reduces, therefore TAS reduces to maintain mach).