Flashcards in African Americans Deck (168):
When was the 13th Amendment?
When was the civil rights act initially?
What did the 13th Amendment do?
Formally freed the slaves
What did the initial civil rights act do?
Guaranteed legal equality
When was the 14th Amendment?
What did the 14th Amendment do?
Gave AA's citizenship
When was the 15th Amendment?
What did the 15th Amendment do?
AA's were given the vote
When was the KKK act?
What does the KKK act do?
Protect southern AA's
When was the Slaughterhouse case?
What did the slaughterhouse case state?
Says that states control the citizen's rights
When was Plessy vs. Ferguson?
What was Plessy vs Ferguson?
'separate but equal'
When was the Fair employment act?
What happened in 1954?
Brown vs. Board overturns Plessy vs. Fergurson
When was the Civil Rights act (2nd)
When was the voting rights act?
When was the Fair housing act?
When was California vs. Bakke?
What was California vs Bakke?
white students discriminated against
When was Martin Luther King day introduced?
When was the civil rights restoration act?
When were the Rodney King riots?
What things under the social theme do you need to consider?
Affecting people, education, housing, living conditions.
What things under the political theme do you need to consider?
Affecting the right to vote, work in politics, involved in political process
What things under the Economic theme do you need to consider?
Affecting access to jobs and employments
What are human rights?
Fundamental rights, believed to belong to an individual , in whose exercise a government may not interfere, including right to speak, associate, e.t.c
What are Civil Rights?
Rights to personal liberty established by 13th and 14th amendments to the U.S constitution and certain congressional acts especially as applied to an individual or a minority group. The rights to full legal, social and economic equality extended to blacks.
What does article 5 explain?
What is required to amend the constitution
What does article 6 establish?
Establishes the constitution as the supreme law of the land.
What does article 7 establish?
Outlines the ratification process for the constitution.
What does the emancipation proclamation state?
slaves will be set free and this freedom will be maintained, nobody is repressed for anything they do in order to gain their freedom, no one should be violent or aggressive towards them unless in self defence.
Why was the Emancipation Act introduced?
The Emancipation Act is freeing the slaves, they were allowed to be fully integrated back into society, no separation allowed.
What did the Emancipation Proclamation spark?
What were the attitudes towards black people in the North?
They were in favour of the slaves being freed and treated with equality.
What were the five points of Johnson's plan to help AAs integrate back into society?
- All southerners had to be prepared to swear oath of allegiance.
- All required to ratify (formally consent to) the 13th amendment
- All property bar slaves had to be returned
- Civil and Military leaders not pardoned
- Slaves given land
Did Johnson's plan work? and why?
Johnson appointed advisers who were unsympathetic to black civil rights and so failed to enforce the ratification of the 13th amendment, everything going to be put into place was revoked (such as slaves being given land) while southern rebels pardoned and abandoned the punishment of rebel leaders and politicians.
What is known as the period of 'congressional reconstruction'?
Radical republicans took control of congress and reconstruction - allowing 14th and 15th amendment to be ratified.
What did the black codes specifically do?
Restricted right of AA's to compete for work against whites.
Gave state right to punish vagrants and unemployed former slaves
Gave state right to return vagrants and unemployed former slaves to forced labour
Allowed those who attacked AA's to go unpunished, with state officials often participating in these attacks.
What were the black codes?
Southern state laws to control freed slaves.
What was the Freedmen's Bureau?
Cared for former slaves by providing them with food, shelter, hospitals and education. It also set up 2 unis but the 900 occupants were subject to intimidation and violence by hostile white southerners.
When was the Freedmen's Bureau set up?
What eight measures were passed during reconstruction?
1) Civil Rights Act (1866)
2) First Reconstruction Act (1867)
3) Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
4) Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
5) First Enforcement Act (1870)
6) Second Enforcement Act (1871)
7) Third Enforcement Act (1871)
8) Civil Rights Act (1875)
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
Everyone should have full and equal benefits of all laws and equal penalties for breaking it.
What was the First Reconstruction Act?
Guaranteed the right to vote and created new southern constitutions.
What was the first enforcement act?
Banned discrimination based on 'race,colour, or previous condition of servitude'
What was the Second enforcement act?
Overturned state laws and prevented AAs from voting - provided federal supervision of elections.
What was the Third Enforcement Act? And what was it known as?
Made it federal offence for 2+ people to conspire to deprive citizens of their rights to equal protection of the laws. Known as KKK act.
What was the second civil rights act?
Aimed to protect all citizens from discrimination in public places. Everyone entitled to "the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodation, advantages and facilities of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theatres, and other places of public amusement."
When was the period of hope?
What happened in the period of hope?
Early stages = significant number of AA's holding office in the south.
Black codes largely nullified by military commander's but shows white attitudes
Most states drew the line at integration CRA 1866 and 1875 did little.
What was the situation like for AAs by mid 1870s?
Many black share croppers
Industrial employment discouraged
Freedmen's Bureau closed 1872 - fear of violence
AA's seen as corrupting influence on white children
When did the Freedman's Bureau close and why?
1872 - funding went.
What was the Slaughterhouse case 1873 about?
Case about judging a meat monopoly.
What precedent did the slaughterhouse case set?
Set a precedent that state laws trump federal laws meaning states like the south can do what they like (Highly discriminatory to blacks)
What can the slaughterhouse case be considered as in regards to AAs
The fist stage of discrimination - making the discrimination acceptable.
How did some southern states react to and use the slaughterhouse case?
They used it to block AAs from voting - blocking their rights.
What was the understanding clause and how did this discriminate against blacks in the south?
Voters had to explain a passage of the constitution to register to vote.
Difficulty of the passage varied according to skin colour - lacked ed and passage = very hard
What were literacy tests and how did the discriminate against blacks in the south?
Voters had to take literacy tests
Many black schools underfunded - lack of education.
What was the poll tax and how did this discriminate against blacks in the south?
Voters had to pay $2 to vote
Many black voters could not afford this
What was the grandfather clause and how did this discriminate against blacks in the south?
If your grandfather had been able to vote before 1867 (when black people got it) you did not have to take the literacy test.
Illiterates could still vote but not blacks.
When did black people gain the vote?
What four things did southern states introduce as a result of the slaughterhouse case?
What were the Jim Crow laws?
Series of state laws in southern and border states, put into place between 1887 and 1891 - enforcing racial segregation.
When were the Jim Crow laws between?
1887 + 1891
What did the Jim Crow laws include in 1887?
Formal segregation of races on trains (8 states), waiting rooms (3 states)
What did the Jim Crow Laws include post 1891?
Segregation in public places of all kinds (accommodation, street cars, railroads e.t.c)
When were the Jim Crow Laws deemed constitutional?
1896 by the Supreme court
Why were the Jim Crow Laws deemed constitutional?
They were deemed constitutional by the Supreme court in Plessy V Ferguson with a separate but equal ruling.
What was Plessy V Ferguson?
Homer Plessy (light skinned mulatto - mixed race) was legally classed as black (despite looking white) because of his heritage and sued after being denied a seat in an all white railway carriage. Justices decide 8-1 against him and ruled separation didn't mean inferior. 'Separate but equal'
What did Plessy v Ferguson legalise?
What does NAACP mean?
The mission of the National Association for the Advancement of coloured people
Why was the NAACP created?
To ensure political, educational, social and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination.
Designed to challenge Plessy V Ferguson
What was the Atlanta Compromise?
Agreement struck in 1985 by Booker T Washington - advocated vocational education was more advantage able to blacks than social advantages, higher ed or political office.
What is social Darwinism?
The belief that some race is more important than others. Racial supremacy.
What is Lynching?
Premeditated extrajudicial (not legally authorised) killing by a group. Informal public executions performed by a mob in order to punish alleged transgressor or to intimidate a group
What civil rights did AAs have in 1865?
Right to vote
They were freed
Why were the rights AAs had in 1865 not effective?
They did in theory gain rights but these were undone by state laws which used loopholes to get around them.
What was the 'Great Migration' 1890s-1960s?
AAs left the south to go and live in the North
Why did AAs decide to migrate from the South to the North?
Better standard of living
Job opportunities were scarce in the South
There was more to do in the North - better access to food, products, e.t.c
Non-segregated living (discovered by soldiers who had travelled during WW1)
What were the positives of the North for AA civil rights?('Great Migration')
Publicly condemned lynching = decline
Blacks with voting rights eligible to be jurors (made courts fairer)
Institutionalised racism not as prevelant
Segregation encouraged black culture - jazz clubs
Significant black middle class - Higher social standing
What were the negatives of the North for AA civil rights? ('Great migration')
Development of ghettos
Unofficially segregation moves North
Chicago race riots
Workplace discrimination in unionised + skilled trade
What did black migration north show a decline in?
The number of racially motivated murders and lynching per decade.
How many Souhern AAs where there in the 1890s compared to the amount of Northern AAs by the 1960s?
South 1890s = 90% and 10% 1960s
North 1890s = 9% and 90% 1960s
Who led the NAACP and what did they target?
Middle class blacks and whites, focusing on civil rights rather than social conditions, targeted desegregation, voting rights and education. These themes continued into 1930s.
What were the policies of the NAACP?
Believed races should live, work and be educated together. It was a non-violent organisation,
lobbying rather than mass action was their central policy as they targeted congressmen.
What were the developments and overall impact of the NAACP?
There was a growth in membership post 1915. 90,000 by 1920, but decline to 50,000 1930.
They were seen as cautious and bureaucratic.
7,000 black supporters
Limited speaking ops in south
Overall they had little impact due to fears of communism so civil rights leaders were wary of links.
What was the difference of opposition to the NAACP in the North compared to the South?
Peaceful op in North
White pop in south violently anti-NAACP
How did the NAACP try to get involved with the Supreme court and was it of any value to the progress of civil rights?
They found federal/legislative routes were blocked, so they focused on the courts.
Few successes in early period but state appeals had to be exhausted before going to the supreme court = slow process.
15th amendment still not reinforced.
Of limited value in progressing civil rights.
What was the FEPC and how effective was it?
Federal agency set up by Roosevelt (persuaded by Randolph), Fair Employment Practices Committee. Promoted equality in defence industries and 2 million blacks employed.
Why was the Smith V Allwright decision important? and what was it?
Southern black political rights increased. It was a supreme court decision which came as a result of the NAACP's Texas campaign against white primaries. Supreme court declared exclusions of blacks from primaries unconstitutional under the 15th amendment.
When was Smith V Allwright?
What happened to demobilised soldiers after WW2 and how did this help blacks gain?
Demobilised soldiers given govt aid for college education meaning black southerners could attend it in record numbers. This education then increased their economic opportunities, and made them more articulate in demanding equality.
How did Blacks migrating improve their situations as well as their safety?
Large-scale migration to city's gave them greater economic and political power. It also meant there were more of them in cities which meant they were less vulnerable to white supremacists - safety in numbers.
When were there dozens of race riots, and what was it due to?
1947 and due to migration. Whites saw blacks as competition for houses. Worst riots in Detroit - 25 blacks and 9 whites died. 800 injured. This was because black homes were demolished to make room for war buildings which meant whites and blacks were in unusually close proximity to each other.
What created more tension in the workplace in 1943?
Some companies responded to federal pressure and employed blacks such as the Alabama Dry Dock Company. But white workers lashed out at blacks with anything they could lay their hands on (i.e bricks), 50 injured.
Why was there tension in the workplace between whites and blacks in 1943?
There was jealousy over the best jobs and white males disliked black males working with white females.
How did the popularity of the NAACP increase during the war time?
Increased from 50,000 to 450,000 during WW2. Close co-operation between NAACP and trade unionists in New Orleans radicalised NAACP leadership into working effectively on equal education opportunities and voter registration.
How did WW2 help blacks fight for the vote?
Northern blacks called for freedom and equality by pointing out southern blacks couldn't vote and therefore the USA could not gain true democracy until they were given it. America didn't want to be seen like the Nazis, as they were at the time very similar in their segregation of blacks to the Nazi segregation of the Jews.
Who was Philip Randolph?
A leader of Civil Rights movement, first predominately African-American labour union. Organised and led the brotherhood of the sleeping car porters in 1925.
What was Philip Randolph's role in the second world war in the fight for black civil rights?
He threatened to bring Washington DC to a standstill unless there was equality within the armed forces and the workplace. He was supported by Walter white who was impatient about the lack of progress on anti-lynching laws.
What does CORE stand for?
Congress of Racial Equality
What did CORE do?
Organised sit ins in segregated Chicago restaurants and demanded integration on interstate transport. Advocated non-violent tactics. Lacked dynamism(good progress) in late 50s, but did initiate freedom rides of 1960s.
When was CORE established?
What did most blacks consider activism as?
Eccentric, they remained quiescent during the second world war as they did not want to seem unpatriotic.
How successful was the FEPC?
2/4 of 8000 job discrimination cases were dismissed, and only 1/5 of southern cases were black victories. Southern congressmen decreased funding for it after it was given greater power in 1943 and therefore it accomplished too little to be considered a real success.
What did the FEPC show?
It did show the importance of federal aid.
Why did the US Justice Department set up a civil rights section?
To try and decrease lynching and police brutality in the South.
What did greater black urbanisation during the war increase?
Awareness and activism.
Within World War Two when were soldiers treated equally?
On the front line, segregation was also harder to implement on ships as shortages of men meant blacks served alongside whites.
Why was WW2 a big turning point in the fight for civil rights.
Desegregation within the armed forces made blacks realise desegregation could be possible in normal life - they had the incentive to make a change as had experienced a desegregated life style.
Hitler had a massive impact as America realised they did not want to discriminate against AAs in the same way Hitler discriminated against the Jews.
Progress within the NAACP as could realise it was wrong to segregate
Economic progress as AAs given access to jobs such as roles within the war.
Which president was the first to make a move to helping African Americans?
What was Truman's initial/childhood response to blacks?
He grew up in a community with a significant amount of racism, he was a product of the time (grew up being anti-civil rights) He also paid $10 membership to the KKK early on in his career.
What 4 things did Harry Truman do for black Civil Rights?
Appointed a committee on civil rights 1946
He signed an executive order against segregation in the military in 1948.
Gave message to congress 2 Feb 1948 requesting key elements of later CR legislation.
Signed Executive order ending segregation in the armed forces 1948.
What were the limitations of Harry Truman's actions?
There was still no comprehensive Civil Rights legislation passed.
Whose administration did more turning points happen under than any other?
What was Eisenhower's background and attitude to civil rights?
Born in the south in an all white town. He had a fear of mixing racial groups. He worried about the emotional strain of desegregation. He was less inclined than Truman to promote Civil Rights.
What 7 turning points happened under Eisenhower?
Brown V Board 1954
Murder of Emmett Till 1955
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
Little Rock 1957
Sit-ins and Freedom Rides 1961
Birmingham Protest 1963
March on Washington 1963
What did Eisenhower do to help Civil Rights?
Executive order stating principle of equal opportunity in federal employment 1955
Created Civil Rights Act which reaffirmed AA right to vote (not legislation)
Sent troops to enforce Supreme Court Ruling on desegregating schools in Little Rock incident 1957.
What was Brown V Board and what was its impact?
Suit filed against Board of ed of City of Topeka, calling for the school to reverse its policy of racial segregation. Supreme Court unanimously ruled segregation in public schools violated the 14th amendment. The ruling paved way for integration and major victory of civil rights movement.
When was Brown V Board?
What was The Emmett Till Murder and what was its impact?
Brutal abduction and murder of 14 year old ET, as a result of a claim he whistled at a white woman. The men were tried for murder but on an all white jury they were acquitted. It brought to light the brutality of the Jim Crow segregation in the south and galvanised the emerging Civil Rights movement.
When was the Emmett Till Murder?
What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott and what was its impact?
Sparked arrest of Rosa Parks as she refused to give up her seat and then created 13 month protest where AAs refused to ride city buses to protest against segregated seating. Regarded as first large scale demo against seg in US, Martin Luther King jr, was one of the leaders. As a result US Supreme Court ruled segregation on buses was unconstitutional - this set tone for civil rights and had long term impact as public buses no longer segregated.
When was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
What was Little Rock and what was its impact on civil rights?
It was refusal to allow AAs into an all white American high school in Little Rock. Due to governor who refused to adhere to the 1954 Brown v Board ruling. 9 students let in, but caused violent riots which governor did little to prevent. In order to keep peace in the city Eisenhower sent in 1,000 army troops and nine students were enable to enrol with no further violence. Law upheld but some criticised Eisenhower for not doing enough whereas some criticised him for going too far in asserting federal power over the states.
When was Little Rock?
what were the Sit-ins and Freedom rides and what was their impact on civil rights?
Sit-ins series of non-violent protests in North Carolina which more and more students joint (started with 4), drew national interest and Woolworth's removed their policy of racial segregation.
Freedom riders were groups of individuals who rode segregated buses in protest, to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions, such as Montgomery Bus Boycotts, Morgan V Virginia (1946) and Boynton V Virginia (1960) where segregated buses ruled unconstitutional. They ended racial segregation in south in 1961 and called national attention to disregard for federal law.
When were the Sit-ins and Freedom rides?
What was the Birmingham protest and what was their impact on Civil Rights?
Movement by SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) sought to bring National attention to efforts of local black leaders to desegregate public facilities in Birmingham. They put pressure on merchants during the Easter season. Riots provoked by number of bombings, targeting black leaders. In the end city of Birmingham desegregated lunch counters, restrooms, drinking fountains, and department store fitting rooms within 90 days. Also agreed to hire Blacks as sale assistants in stores.
When was the Birmingham protest?
What was the March on Washington and what was it's impact on Civil Rights?
Planned by Randolph and Rustin Began, hoped for 2 days of protesting, wanted to rally and do sit ins with the focus on joblessness. They couldn't secure backing from the NAACP. The march was an advocate for civil and economic rights of African Americans, consisted of 25,000 people 60,000 were white. MLK delivered famous 'I have a dream speech' to protesters. It was a march credited for helping pass the civil rights act of 64, which led to passing of voting rights act in 65.
When was the March on Washington?
What was the SCLC?
Led by MLK, aimed to improve situation of Southern Blacks, wanted to offer alternative non-violent direct action to the NAACP. Difficult for southern racists to attack because of the christian background. Poor org + lack of mass support hindered initial success + black divisions continued to hamper success.
What does SCLC stand for?
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
When was the SCLC founded?
What was the SNCC?
Their main aim was to politicise local communities and empower ordinary people. Appreciative of women workers and whites. Black freedom movement in Mississippi was seen as their finest hour, established freedom schools. But not protected by govt and became increasingly militant - divided by Black Power.
What does SNCC stand for?
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
When was the SNCC founded?
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and who was it put into place by?
Proposed by Kennedy 1963, passed by Johnson following JFKs death and made law in 1964. It put a ban on exclusions in public places, FEPC set up on permanent basis, no discrimination allowed on federally aided programmes and Attorney General could file lawsuits to speed up desegregation and voting rights.
What was Selma 1965?
CR movement focusing on voting rights following the CRA. Selma in Alabama had low number of registrations of AA voters, only 1% registered out of 50% of black population. March led by King to Montgomery to Selma,, where attacked by Police. Johnson responded by promising legislation for voting rights bill and protecting the marchers.
What was the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Changes in public opinion following Selma and Birmingham thought bill would be a success and it was.
Abolished literacy tests
Prevented disruption to Black people trying to register e.g lack of voting registration centres.
When was the Voting Rights Act?
What 7 general things led to progress in Civil Rights between 1954 and 1964?
Presidential support - Eisenhower, JFK, LBJ
Activist Groups - Selma, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC, CORE
Reputation of the US - Fear communism + didn't want to be like Hitler.
Congress - Supportive of VRA (less supported of CRA)
Media + Tech - Emmett Till + TV activism
Public attitudes - more sympathetic
1960s - liberalism, hippy movement (peace + Love)
What did JFK do to help Civil Rights?
Publicly stated support in his campaign
Planned legislation for better health care and wages
Significant number of black appointments in FBI and Federal Bureaucracy + 5 black federal judges
Hastened desegregation in New Orleans, Memphis, Atlanta
Symbolic gestures - invited blacks to white house
Forced football teams to higher blacks
Civil Rights Bill proposed
Supported James Meredith
How did JFK hinder Civil Rights?
won presidential position by narrow victory so slow to push through legislation.
Public didn't want fed action to force integration
Backed down on voting rights in Mississippi
Refused to offer fed help to enforce voting rights
Did little to improve housing
How did Johnson help Civil Rights?
Passed Civil Rights Act
Great society - end to poverty + social injustice
Legal tools to end segregation in South
Prohibited discrimination in public places
Elementary and Secondary education act - children helped out of ghettos.
Higher Education Act
Health and Care reform
Voting rights Bill
Used Black advisers + first black supreme court judge
How did Johnson hinder Civil Rights?
CRA did little to facilitate black voting
Blacks felt bill didn't do enough.
Limited success of Education Act
Found it hard to get support from Congress
Johnson's great society raised unrealistic hopes
Vietnam War - more focused on.
Limit amount of legislation due to harsh white backlash
What was the Equal Employment Opportunity Act?
Greater powers at enforcing prosecution against discrimination.
When was the Equal Employment Opportunity Act?
What were the positive changes Nixon enforced from 1969-1974?
Economic and social improvements
Policy of 'affirmative action' - positive discrimination
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
Increased fed expen on poverty programmes = 50% blacks below poverty line 1960 - 30% 1974
Education - Racial integration enforced with bussing policy
By 1972 southern schools better integrated than rest of USA
What was Nixon's bussing policy? And why did it not prove popular?
It was meant to help social integration by forcing AAs to travel out of town to go to different schools therefore increasing racial mix. But the fact they could not go to school where they lived was not very popular.
What were the negatives of Nixon's presidency?
He was privately racist and did not want to meet black leaders which shows he did not have a complete willingness of integration. Shows he is not interested in their views, just trying to help his career by helping them. He also nominated Southern racists to the Supreme Court and did not back the Supreme Court on full school desegregation - promoted bussing instead.
Opposed MLK holiday and crushed black panthers.
What were the positive changes under President Ford 1974-1977?
He was keen to cultivate good relations and held many meetings with civil rights leaders.
Nominated the first black secretary of transport
Extended the voting rights act despite calls form his party to scrap it
Opposed bussing to aid desegregation but refused to support anti-bussing organisations.
What were the negatives of Fords presidency on Civil Rights?
He was often hounded by Civil Rights leaders for his opposition, and often regarded as having no stance on civil rights. He was seen as an accidental president as he lost out to Jimmy Carter in 1976 presidential campaign. Overall he didn't have much to do with CRs as he didn't oppose it but he made no effort to benefit it.
What were the positives of Carter's reign, 1977-1981?
First southern president since Woodrow Wilson, he opposed bussing and segregation, employed many blacks and also appointed more to federal judiciary than any other president as well as appointing black women to his cabinet.
Renewed the voting rights act
Backed affirmative action - California vs Bakke 1978.
When was California V Bakke?
What was California V Bakke?
White male (Bakke) applied to a medicine school in 1973 and 1974 but rejected both years, despite the fact 'special applicants' were submitted with significantly lower grades than Bakke. Supreme Court decided against restrictions on white entrants to higher education on the basis of racial quotas. (Example of positive discrimination in favour of blacks, so high achieving white could not get in).
Did President Reagan support civil rights or have any positives on it and if not why?
He opposed the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act. He did not support federal initiatives to provide blacks with civil rights.
Opposed MLK and only signed it after an overwhelming veto - proof majority for it.
What did the 1984 Grove Bell v Supreme Court decision show?
Ruled if a course reliant on federal aid it had to comply with anti-discrimination laws. But the whole institute didn't have to. It was an attempt to undo affirmative action, but the fact the supreme court over ruled it showed a wider acceptance of anti-discrimination laws.
What was Freeman V Pitts?
Court deciding whether or not to end a desegregation plan. Court decided it didn't need to control every aspect over school administration until desegregation achieved. Made it easier for schools to loose federal intervention before desegregation was fully achieved.
When was Freeman V Pitts?
When were the Rodney King Riots?
What were the Rodney King Riots?
Rioting in LA over the outcome of the Rodney King case. Rodney King was a victim of police brutality which was videotaped by a bystander, Four LAPD officers were later tried in a state court for the beating but were acquitted. The announcement of the acquittals sparked these riots. Later federal trial for Civil Rights violations ended with two officers found guilty but other two acquitted again.
Who was Jesse Jackson?
Campaigned for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 1984. 3rd most popular candidate in 1988.
What was the most famous anti-civil rights group?