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1

French developments

George Cuvier and Alexander brongniart developed ideas of faunal succession

2

Who was the first person to go beyond faunal succession and develop a modern concept of biostrigraphy?

Alcide dorbigny

3

What did dorbigny study?

Studied the Jurassic fossils and strata in southern France

4

Albert Oppel

Completed the modernization of bio stratigraphy

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What makes a good biostratigraphic indicator fossil?

Distinctive
Abundant
Widespread geological distribution
Not facies specific
Rapid evolution
Short temporal range

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Reasons why local first and last appearance data isn't globl

Biogeopgraphic: all species are geographic in origin, may immigrate to other places, suffer local extinction
Preservation
Facies specificity
Uncomformites: no rocks of that age in local sections

7

Classification of grace fossils

Ethnologic or taxonomic

8

Ethologic

Trace fossils are primarily evidence of animal behaviour
Seilacher established a small number of ethologic categories

9

Categories of ethologics

Resting trace: cubichnia
Locomotion trace: Repichnia
Grazing trace: pascichnia
Feeding traces: Fodinichnia
Dwelling traces: domichnia
Traps/farming traces: agrichnia
Escape traces: Fugichnia
Equilibrium traces: equilibrichnia
Predation traces: praedichnia
Nesting traces: calichnia
Fixation/ anchoring traces: fixichnia
Death traces: mortichnia

10

Bio stratigraphy

The art and science of telling time from rocks
Based on faunal succession which was first discovered by William smith

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Ichnofacies

Trace fossil association that recurs throughout geologic time in response to a set of paleoenvironmental conditions

12

Food resource paradigm

Limiting factor of distribution of trace making organisms in shallow marine water

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Brackish water trace fossil model

1. Reduced diversity of trace fossils in many cases mono specific
2. Reduced size of trace fossils compared to their fully marine counterparts
3. Predominance of simple trace fossils
4. Sparse bioturbation

14

Ediacaran kimberella

In Russia probably a mollusk

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Graphic correlation

Quantitative method of biostratigraphy developed by Alan shaw. Works by correlating multiple stratigraphic sections
If correlation is 45 degrees then sections had identical fossil distribution and rock accumulation
If different then one section had sediment accumulating faster then the other section

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Biostratigraphic resolution

Ideally when using biostrigraphy for correlation we would like to do so with the greatest detail. Subdivide rocks into shorter zones this allows us to discriminate between events that happen closer together in time

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Precision

+ or - error of an age

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Dual biostratigraphy

Attempts to take in the spatial distribution of fossils as well as the temporal distribution

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Bio facies

Biotic stratigraphic unit of environmental significance. How these are identified is you look at the different genera in your fossil collection

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Paleoecology

Study of the interactions of fossils with each other and with the environment they lived in the geological past

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Paleoautecology

Relationships of individual organisms to their environment

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Palesynecology

Relationships of groups of organisms to each other and to their environment

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Information potential

Life habits of extinct organisms
Nature of ancient communities and ecosystems
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction
Sea level changes

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Pelagic

Live in the water column
Can be subdivided into plankton (floaters) and nekton (swimmers)

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Plankton

Usually passive and goes where the current takes them
Plant plankton (diatoms) are called phytoplankton and are mostly microscopic
Animal plankton are called zooplankton and are mostly microscopic
Include foraminifera and jellyfish

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Nekton

Mostly invertebrates like fish but can also be vertebrates like Cephalopods

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Benthos

Epifauna (animals)
Epiflora (plants)
Infauna (living in and moving through the sediment)

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Sessile

Stay in one place

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Mobile

Move around or in the sea floor

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Primary producers

Autotrophs
Manufacture their own food
Consumed by primary consumers which are usually suspension feeders