Flashcards in Age of Revolutions Deck (41)
What sort of people were considered “counter-revolutionaries” under the Jacobin's rules?
Any of the wealthy people fighting against the revolution.
People who hoarded grain
People who didn’t join the army when asked
Anyone who criticized the Jacobins
Who was Maximilien Robespierre?
Leader of the Jacobins political group, head of the French government during the Reign of Terror
What was the purpose of the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
This officially declared the new government of France, and laid out the things they wanted the new government to do
What was the final trigger that started the French Revolution?
A drought killed crops, making bread too expensive to buy
What was the Storming of the Bastille, and why did it show the weakness of Louis XVI?
This was when the peasants invaded and controlled the Bastille, which is was a fortress that held political prisoners and weapons.
This showed weakness because the king did nothing to stop the rioting
What was the French army used for during the Reign of Terror?
They were used to tax people’s food and land
In what ways can you still see the impact of the Enlightenment on the United States government?
We have a government that focuses on protecting its citizens’ happiness.
Voting rights, freedoms of speech religion, press, etc.
3 branches of government, trial by jury, no illegal search and seizure.
In what ways was King Louis to blame for the French Revolution?
Had lousy leadership
Wasn’t interested in ruling the country
Never did anything about the economy until it was too late
How did the French and Indian War start the problems between the British and the colonists?
It caused England to go into debt, which led them to raise taxes on the colonists, which we didn’t want to pay.
What were the Intolerable Acts?
Boston Port Bill - Shut down Boston Harbor
Massachusetts Government Act - Disbanded the elected governments
Administration of Justice Act - Allowed British officials and troops who were accused of killing people to go to England for court instead of the colonies.
Quartering Act - Colonists were forced to pay for British soldiers’ housing, including
Why would colonist not like mercantilism?
They cannot buy or sell to countries that would give them better prices.
The money always ends up in England
The colonists weren’t allowed to make finished goods, only raw materials
In what ways was the Haitian Revolution a success?
Ended slavery in their country/ won their independence from France
How many people ended up being killed during the Reign of Terror? How many were peasants?
40,000-50,000 and about 85% came from the 3rd estate
What issues were the Haitian people angry about before the Revolution?
The mixed race- middle class- not equal to the whites in the country but having more rights than slaves in the country.
Who did the Jacobins blame for the problems in France?
What happened to Robespierre?
After he turned on his own inner circle, he was accused of being an enemy of the revolution and was beheaded
What are five words that would describe the lifestyle of the second class, especially Louis and Marie Antoinette?
Answers may vary (Rich, Expensive, Unnecessary, Unequal, “Over the top”, etc)
What were the professions and sizes of the 1st and 2nd estates?
1st - 1%, Priests
2nd - 2% Royalty
What was the Great Fear, and why did it show the weakness of Louis XVI?
This followed the Storming of the Bastille, and was a 6 month period of mob violence in the countryside. Mobs of peasants murdered the wealthy, destroyed their estates, and burned legal records out of a revenge and panic about rumors of an “Austrian invasion” that never occurred
Again the king was incapable of stopping the violence
Describe the living conditions for the peasants. Give specific examples.
They lived in one room houses with dirt floors, mud walls, and thatch roofs.
They were usually hungry, and frequently starved if the weather was not good
They usually had one or two sets of clothes, and had to make everything they had in the home
Worked from sun up to sundown every day but Sunday
Who was Marie Antoinette?
Last Queen of France
Who led the Haitian rebellion, and how well did he live up to the Enlightenment values?
Not well- he created himself as a dictator
What events lead up to the Boston Massacre?
The British sent troops to enforce the laws (especially mercantilism) in Boston. An aggressive crowd started a fight with some British troops leading them to shoot into the crowd in self defense.
How large was the 3rd estate, and what kind of jobs did these people have?
17% were in the “upper 3rd” and were merchants, doctors, lawyers, business owners, etc.
80% were poor peasant farmers
Was the French Revolution a success?
No. It ended up being taking away the very rights the revolution had been fought to get.
What are 3 economic problems that France had before the Revolution?
The government was bankrupt, and had already taxed the 3rd estate the limit
France helped the colonists in the American Revolution
Too much money spent by Louis and Marie Antoinette (the King and Queen)
How did the French Revolution help to cause the Haitian Revolution?
The ideas spread to Haiti through travel , allowed Haitians to start wanting equality
How did the French Revolution reflect Enlightenment ideas?
The government would protect natural rights
Got rid of estates and all people were taxes equally
New government would be a democracy
Provided freedoms of speech, press, religion, etc.
According to John Locke, what is a government’s main concern?
To protect natural rights of their citizens